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Abdel-Ati, Hassan, 37, 40 abortion, 131 abstinence, 93, 153 –54 Abu Hadia, Mohamed Badri, 175 Abu-Lughod, Lila, 25, 48 abuse, physical battery, 54 adal awat (red stone): ingestion of, 77; in marriage ceremonies, 99, 100; as protective marking on camels, 75 –76 adats (maximal lineages), 17, 43 adoption, 25, 131–32 affliction, logic of, 14 agency, of Hadendowa women, 8, 14, 25, 116, 143, 171 agriculture: environmental degradation and,29;exportortradecommodities, 30, 36; grain crops, 32; infringement on nomadic land resources by, 44; irrigation and, 31; mechanized or largescale agricultural projects, 32, 44. See also animal husbandry Ahmed, Abdel Ghafar, 37–38 alcohol, 91 Alsharifa Maryam (Sitti Maryam), 60, 100–102, 115 –16, 128, 129; tomb of, 3, 100, 101 amara land rights, 33, 51 Amarar, 15, 31 amulets, 116, 126, 133, 142, 145, 151; grains or seeds as symbols of growth in, 78, 117, 127; halafa logic and, 13; in ijar medicine , 165, 166; knots (auqadat), 127, 199 Index Page numbers in italics refer to figures and tables. amulets (continued) 129; as protection from evil eye, 67, 70; seashells and fish bones as, 70, 142 animalhusbandry:animalsaspartof dowry, 96; camels, 34, 52, 54, 75 –76, 76; chickens as income source, 38 –39; disease losses, 31; drought losses, 30–33; flood losses, 32; goats and sheep, 34, 35, 97– 98; losses during 1984 –85 famine, 37; male maturity and, 87 appropriation, halafa practice and, 13, 133 –36 arid (blockages caused by spirits), 68, 69, 128, 138 –41, 162 Ashraf family, 59, 62; as blessed people, 127, 128, 129; land rights claims by, 61 Asia (as counter example), 6, 9, 172 asl land rights, 33, 51 Atbara River, 14 Aukar, Hadendowa homeland, 20, 42–43 aumda (leaders), 17–18, 163 –65 aumkir (wise men). See shaikhs (leaders) ausaf (bridewealth). See dowries auslif (the familiar and habitual): diet and, 153;duraritand,12;halafaandreversal of, 134; identity and, 12; infertility in context of, 130–32; as knowledge, 12; nonconformity to, 90; as ritual space, 12; urban migration as threat to, 170; violations of, 89 bahai natu (motherless children), 75 balawait (northern Sudanese), 20–21; appropriation of balawait identity as halafa practice, 133 –36; etymology of term, 63; as foreign, 63; positive attributes of, 65 –66; social superiority of, 63; stereotypes of, 63 –64, 154 –56 baraka (blessing, Arabic), 12, 99, 102; as contagious or transmissible, 128, 137– 38; as healing power, 128 –29 Barakawin (founding father of the Hadendowa ), 20, 43; grave site of, 111 beds: in funerary rites, 107–8; as gendered domestic spaces, 97; in halafa practices , 134 Beja confederation, 14 –17, 37–38 Beja Congress political organization, 60n3 Beni Amir, 15 –16, 31, 44, 47, 64; as cause of foreign contagion (tisaramt), 76 –77, 106; jinn associated with, 69, 136, 164 biomedicine, 4, 13 –14, 138, 148, 167; as foreign threat, 117, 154 –55, 171; in halafapractices ,135 –36;inadequaciesof, 78 –79;integrationintoethnomedical practices, 129; midwifery programs, 172–73; vaccination campaigns, 171 birth control (contraception), 93, 131, 174; abortion, 131; as foreign, 7, 154; as immodest , 154 –55 Bishariyyin, 15, 31 blackness, 47; kishab (“blackness “ or “slavery ”), 64, 65 blessedness/blessings: as contagious power, 99, 102, 128, 137–38; as inherited, 128 – 29; shrine visits and, 100–102; as treatment for infertility, 127. See also baraka (blessing,Arabic);masait(blessed people) blood, 12, 74, 75, 99, 126, 139, 152, 153; dietary support of health, 146; durarit or honor linked to, 44 –45; as reproductive waste, 149, 165 (see also menstruation ); ritual uses of, 139 –41 Boddy, Janice, 70, 146 –47 body: bodily health as gendered, 10; body fluids,12,74 –75,99,152(seealsoblood; milk;semen);bodypoliticand,14,137; clothing as protective, 85; cold/hot body states, 147; colonization of, 170; disease as maternal inheritance, 12; “embodied spatiality,”9; eyes as metaphor , 67; feet or lower body as vulnerable , 113, 141; female body as porous or vulnerable, 5, 24, 83 –85, 146 –47; gendered division of body space, 56 – 57; male body as less vulnerable to external danger, 83, 88; representations as gendered, 79; as source of wealth, 70; as spatial metaphor, 5, 9, 24, 171; as vulnerable, 70 boundaries: body marking during rituals, 140–41; as dynamic, 12; physical geography as markers of, 49; sunset as liminal period, 142, 146, 153. See also boundary transgression boundary transgression, 24, 85; camel marking and disputed boundaries, 34; embodied spatiality and, 79; fertility threatened by, 10; the foreign and, 13, 171; incense as protective during , 112; intrusion on homeland...


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