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City of Life City of Death My parents, Dietrich and Erna, 1938. CITY OF LIFE CITY OF DEATH Memories of Riga Max Michelson UNIVERSITY PRESS OF COLORADO  © 2001 by Max Michelson Published by the University Press of Colorado 5589 Arapahoe Avenue, Suite 206C Boulder, Colorado 80303 All rights reserved First paperback edition 2004 Printed in the United States of America The University Press of Colorado is a proud member of the Association of American University Presses. The University Press of Colorado is a cooperative publishing enterprise supported, in part, by Adams State College, Colorado State University, Fort Lewis College, Mesa State College, Metropolitan State College of Denver, University of Colorado, University of Northern Colorado, and Western State College of Colorado. The paper used in this publication meets the minimum requirements of the American National Standard for Information Sciences—Permanence of Paper for Printed Library Materials. ANSI Z39.48-1992 Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Michelson, Max, 1924– City of life, city of death : memories of Riga / Max Michelson. p. cm. Includes bibliographical references. ISBN 0-87081-642-X (alk. paper) — ISBN 0-87081-788-4 (pbk.: alk. paper) 1. Michelson, Max, 1924– 2. Jews—Latvia—Råga—Biography. 3. Holocaust, Jewish (1939– 1945)—Latvia—Råga—Personal narratives. 4. Råga (Latvia)—Biography. I. Title. DS135.L33 M536 2000 940.53'18'092—dc21 [B] 2001027210 Designed and typeset by Daniel Pratt 13 12 11 10 09 08 07 06 05 04 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Excerpt from Oscar Handlin’s “Introduction” in Simon Dubnov History of the Jews, copyright 1967 by A. S. Barnes and Co., Inc. Reprinted by permission of Julian Yosellof. Excerpts from Anatol Lieven, The Baltic Revolution, copyright 1993 by Anatol Lieven, reprinted by permission of the Yale University Press. Excerpt from the Yom Kippur Memorial Service from Central Conference of American Rabbis, Gates of Repentance, copyright CCAR, 1976. Reprinted by permission of Central Conference of American Rabbis. To my beloved grandchildren Rebecca, Daniel, and Anna and In loving memory of my son Gregory ...