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Introduction / 11 Harvest of Violence Revisited and helps us connect intellectually and politically to Harvest of Violence. Stoll focuses on tracing scholarship on Mayas since the earlier volume, while Carmack focuses on how the forms of violence afflicting Mayas have changed over that same time.The most profound contrast between the two is the assessment of the revolutionary movement. Stoll appraises it as a failure rejected by the majority of Mayas, while Carmack believes that ultimately Mayas will draw inspiration from it.The contributors,however, are not so bold to offer such predictions, but their cases do point to examples where Mayas themselves are gaining more power and contending with the potential conflicts that arise when holding power. Julio Chalcú Ben Kaqchikel Mayan artist Julio Chalcú Ben created the paintings in figures 4–8. They are based on his interpretations of Mayan history and Guatemalan contemporary life. Given that he was brutally tortured by the Guatemalan army on December 16, 1990, his artwork serves as a testament to the strong will and Fig 2. Major Guatemalan roads, cities, and towns. Map by Justin Lowry. 12 / Little fortitude of thousands of Mayas. He was held for eleven days; firemen discovered him lying by the side of the road 130 kilometers from his home. The Marjorie Kovler Center for the Treatment of Survivors of Torture and the Su Casa Catholic Worker House in the United States treated his severe injuries, which left his right arm paralyzed and also left him unable to speak. However, it took him almost five months before he was able to write his name, allowing his family to learn that he was still alive. When he eventually returned to Guatemala, he was unable to return to his work as a farmer, due to his disabilities as a result of the torture. Rather than give up, he took a custodial position with the Maya Association of Development, a women’s weaving cooperative Fig 3. Mayan language areas referred to in the text. Map by Justin Lowry. Introduction / 13 based in Sololá. In his spare time, he taught himself to draw, paint, and write with his left hand.The paintings included in this volume were purchased from the artist by Timothy J. Smith. Chalcú Ben uses the proceeds from such sales and painting itself to continue to recover from the emotional and physical torture he endured. Fig 4. Traje pueblo Sololá Guatemala/Trabajando en el campo (Sololá, Guatemala, clothing/Working in the country) and Mujer tejiendo un mundo mejor/ Traje pueblo Sololá Guatemala (Woman weaving a better world/Sololá, Guatemala, clothing). Courtesy of the artist, Julio Chalcú Ben. Fig 5. Cantar al señor/Traje pueblo San Antonio Palópo Guatemala (To sing to the Lord/San Antonio Palopó, Guatemala, clothing) and Traje pueblo San Antonio Palópo Guatemala (San Antonio Palopó, Guatemala, clothing). Courtesy of the artist, Julio Chalcú Ben. Fig 6. El joven Maya cortando la leña (A Mayan youth chopping firewood) and El joven Maya caminando cargando el palo (A Mayan youth walking, carrying a pole). Courtesy of the artist, Julio Chalcú Ben. Fig 7. Traje pueblo Sololá (Sololá clothing) and El joven Maya caminando el templo (A Mayan youth walking to the temple). Courtesy of the artist, Julio Chalcú Ben. Fig 8. El abuelo lee la Prensa Libre (Grandfather reads the Prensa Libre) and Apostol Pedro predicando palabra de Díos (Apostle Peter preaching the Word of God). Courtesy of the artist, Julio Chalcú Ben. 1 Democracy Is Dissent Political Confrontations and Indigenous Mobilization in Sololá Timothy J. Smith This ethnographic portrait of rural democracy in postwar Guatemala stems from the first complete study of Sololá, in which I offer a critical interpretation of Pan-Mayan activism through a study of a conflict between two predominantly indigenous political groups. The history of a local “anti-party” of Mayan activists, who controlled both the official municipal government and the indigenous (Mayan) municipal government between 1996 and 2000, is detailed. After enjoying a successful campaign to reform local and regional institutions which had discriminated against indigenous populations, their authority was challenged by the local wing of the Guatemalan National Revolutionary Unity’s (URNG) political party (a political offshoot of the umbrella guerilla organization that signed the 1996 Peace Accords), which took control of both municipal governments after a bitter, contested election in 2001. The dispute included death threats, an outpouring of media, police response, mass protest, court indictments, legal grievances, and destruction of public buildings . The two...

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