Right and Wrong Calendrical Practice: An Assertion of the Truth of Enoch’s Account (82:4–8)

From: 1 Enoch 2

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550 n  4-8  In these verses, the text returns to astronomical material of a sort familiar from earlier parts of the Book of the Luminaries. The section begins with a beatitude for the righteous, but here the righteous are defined not as the direct descendants of Enoch (to whom his wisdom is transmitted in 82:1-3) but as the ones who correctly number the days in a solar year. The section is especially reminiscent of 1 Enoch 75:1-3, where there is also concern with the leaders of the stars, proper inclusion of the four additional days in the annual count, the Right and Wrong Calendrical Practice: An Assertion of the Truth of Enoch’s Account 4 Blessed are alla the righteous, all the blessedb who will walk in the way of righteousnessc and have no sin like the sinnersd in numbering alle the days the sun travels inf the sky through the gates,g entering and emerging for thirtyh days with the heads of thousands of thei order of the stars, withj the four additional ones thatk dividel betweenm the four parts of the year that lead them andn enter with the fouro days. 5/ People err regarding thema and do notb calculate them in the numbering of the entirec yeard because they err regarding them and people do note understand themf precisely.g 6/ For they belonga inb the reckoning of the yearc and are indeed recorded forever:d onee in the first gate,f oneg in the third,h one in the fourth,i and one in the sixth. Thusj a year ofk 364 days is completed. 7/ The account about it is true anda its calculation is preciselyb recorded because the luminaries and the months, the festivals,c the years,d and the days he showed me, and Uriel, to whom the Lord of the entire creatione gave ordersf for me regardingg the host of heaven, breathed on me. 8/ He has power in heaven overa night andb day to make light appearc over humanity: the sun, the moon, the stars, and all the heavenly powersd which revolvee inf their circuits. 4a all] om. u. b all the blessed] om. g; wa- u; pr. wa- 2080; om. all 2080 T9 ; “all the blessed righteous ones” m; q inserts   aµm])] all mss. except T9 read ዓለም፡ (  >aµlam, “world”); see comm. for the superiority of “year” in this context. e not (understand)] om. m. f understand them] The words are added above the line in T9 . g precisely] om. u. 6a they belong] “it belongs” 2080. b in] “to” m. c year] “world” p; “world and year” u (see v. 11). d forever (lit. “to eternity”)] “in eternity” T9 ; om. u. e one] pr. “and” m. f gate] + “and one in the second” q. g one (in the third)] The mss. prefix a conjunction; it is written above the line in p. h third] + “gate” g (there is an erasure in p). i fourth] + “and one in the fifth” q u. j Thus (lit. “and”)] om. T9 . k a year of] pr. “and” g m u; “a year” 2080 β. 7a and] om. T9 . b precisely] Most of the older mss. read an adverb, while m q β have an adjective (“precise”). c the festivals] The mss. introduce each item in the list with a conjunction and la-, but p has an erasure where la- would be; + za- g; om. both wa-la m; om. wa- t u. d years] “year” T9 . e the entire creation] om. u. f gave orders] + masc. sg. suffix (-o [“to him”]) p; “showed” q. g regarding] The α mss. use la-, while the β texts have ba-, but the meaning seems to be the same. 8a over (night)] om. g q; “for” m t (first hand) u. b and (most mss. repeat “over”)] om. “and” g m; om. “over” 2080 q u; “and for” t (second hand; “for” [first hand]). c make light appear] + “to me” g. d powers] “power” u; “skies” q. e revolve] “revolves” g. f in (their circuits)] “to” u. 82 VanderKamBB.indd 550 8/9/2011 7:25:15 PM 551 82:4-8 1 Jonathan Ben-Dov, “Composition and Thematic Structure in the Book of Astronomy” (paper delivered at the annual meeting of the AAR/SBL in Philadelphia, November 2005). The quotation is from p. 11. See also idem, “Astronomy and Calendars at Qumran,” 154–58; idem, Head of All Years, 116–18. 2 Nickelsburg (1 Enoch...