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521 Uriel’s Summary and Prediction of­ Human Sin and Its Consequences 1 At that time Uriela the angelb responded to me: “I have now shown youc everything, Enoch,d and I have revealed everything to you so that you may seee this sun and this moon and those who lead the stars of the sky and all thosef who turn them—theirg work, their times,h andi their emergences. 2 Ina the days of the sinners the rainy seasonsb will grow shorter, their seedc will become late ond their land and in their fields. Everything on the earth will change and will note appear atf their times,g the rain will be withheld,h and the sky will stand still.i 3 Ata those timesb the fruit of the earth will be late and will not grow at its normal time, and the fruit of the trees will be withheld at its (normal) time. 4 The moon will change its order and will not appear at itsa (normal) time. 5 Ata that timeb it will appear inc the sky and will arrive at . . . atd the edge of the great chariot ine the west and will shine very much more (brightly) than its normal light. 6 Manya heads of the stars will stray from the commandb and will change their ways and actions andc will notd appear at the timese prescribed for them.f 7 The entirea law of the starsb will be closedc to the sinners, and the thoughts of those on the earthd will erre regarding them. They will turn back from all their ways, will err,f and will take themg to be gods. 8 Evila will multiply against themb and punishment will comec upon themd toe destroy all.”f 1a Uriel] om. q. b the angel] om. q u β. c have now (almost all mss. read nawaµ, but u has naµhu, a synonym; om. m) shown you] g T9 t u read an imperfect form of the verb (el), a phrase that is well attested in prophetic literature (e.g., Jer 3:18; 5:18; 31:29; 33:15, 16; 50:4, 20; Joel 3:2; 4:1; Zech 8:6, 9, 15, 23; see also Deut 17:9; 19:17; 26:3), where it introduces sections that address the future (but see 72:9; 81:10). Also, in contrast to chaps. 72–79, Uriel, here described merely as an angel, actually speaks. This is the first and only place where he serves as the subject of the verb “responded.” While he is the source of the revelations throughout the Book of the Luminaries, in chap. 80 he speaks them directly rather than allowing Enoch to convey his words.2 When Uriel appears elsewhere in the Book of the Luminaries, his name is part of a set expression: “Uriel . . . showed me” (72:1; 74:2; 75:3-4; 78:10; 79:6 [cf. v. 2]). The exception, apart from 80:1, is 82:7, where the wording is altered and expanded: “. . . he showed me, and Uriel . . . breathed on me.” In the present arrangement of the text, Uriel continues to be the speaker in the remainder of chap. 80, and he speaks again in 81:1, where he orders Enoch to read the heavenly tablets. 1 Enoch 80:1 is also the first verse in which the verb “reveal” (here the first person sg. perfect form, kašatku) is used for Uriel’s disclosures (see also 82:1, where Enoch reveals information to Methuselah). Uriel enumerates for Enoch the phenomena that he had shown to him, and the list includes the topics treated in the astronomical sections of the booklet. The sun, moon, and leaders of the stars are frequent subjects, although the leaders of the stars receive fuller treatment only in chap. 82 (see 72:3 [cf. v. 5]; 75:1, 3; 82:4, 10-14, 18, 20). The words “those who turn them” do not recur in the Book of the Luminaries,3 but the d and (will) not] The words wa-leµhomu). e to] “and” T9 . f destroy all] The verbal forms differ in the mss., and q β attach to the verb a suffix that is resumed by la- before kwellu, but the meaning is the same. VanderKamBB.indd 522 8/9/2011 7:25:11 PM 523 80:1-8 Hoffmann (“alle die, welche verursachen ihre Wirkung und ihre Zeiten und ihre Ausgang [all that cause their action, their times, and...


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