The Four Quarters of the Earth, Its Seven Mountains and Seven Rivers (77)

From: 1 Enoch 2

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482 1a The first quarterb is calledc “eastern”d becausee it is the first; and the secondf is called “south”g because there the Most High will descend and especially there the one who is blessed forever will descend.h 2/ The name of the quarter on the west is “diminished”a because there all the heavenly luminariesb diminishc and go down.d 3/ The fourth quarter whose namea is “north” is divided into three parts.b One of them is the place where people live;c the secondd is for the seas,e the deeps,f forests, rivers,g darkness,h and mist;i and the other partj is for the garden of righteousness.k 4/ I saw seven lofty mountainsa which are higher than all the mountainsb on the earth;c from them snow emerges,d and days, seasons, and years pass by.e 5/ I saw sevena rivers on the earth, larger than all the rivers.b One of them comesc from the west (and) pours itsd water into the great sea. 6/ Two of thema come from the north to the seab and pourc their water intod the Erythreane Sea onf the east. 7/ The remaining four emerge on the northern side toward their sea, into the Erythrean Sea and two into the great seaa where they empty themselves, but some sayb into the wilderness.c 8/ I saw seven large islands in the sea and on the land—five on the landa and twob in the Erythreanc Sea. The Four Quarters of the Earth, Its Seven Mountains and Seven Rivers 1a 4Q209 23 3-10 and 4Q210 1 ii [14]-20 (corresponding with 1 Enoch 77:1-4). [77:1] [The east is called “east” because it is] the first. The south is called “south” because there the Great One lives and in (?) [ ] forever. blank [77:2] The great quarter (is called) the western quarter because there [ ] the heavenly [st]ars [come], and hundreds/vessels set and hundreds/vessels enter, and all of them are stars. For this reason it is called “the west.” [77:3] [The north (is called) “north”] because in it all the entities that set hide, gather, and go around; they go to the east side of the sky [ ea]st because from there the vessels of the sky rise; and also “orient” because from there/hundreds rise [ ] the earth. One of them serves as a place where people live, and one of them [ ] for deserts. And for [ the gard]en of righteous­ ness. bla[nk 77:4 I saw sev]en mo[untains higher than a]ll mo[untains on the ea]r[th, and] snow [ca]me down on them [ b quarter] Though the following adjective and the context demand a sg. noun, g u read a pl. (nafsaµt[-a in g]) rather than nafaµs. c is called (lit. “they call to”)] for la- (“to”) T9 reads ba- (“in”). d “eastern”] pr. la- g T9 u; pr. wa-la q; m has an odd “from the east ‘eastern.’” e because] q seems to have a misreading of raµb), many β copies prefix za- (“which”), while other mss. replace     >ewu or yeke  >  >u). d into] “to” T9 (la- for ba-). e Erythrean] om. q. f on] om. T9 7a into the Erythrean Sea and two into the great sea] om. q; no ms. reads “two” (or any other number) at the beginning of the expression, though the sense requires it. Trouble may have resulted from the two instances of the prepositional phrase ba-baµh\ra (g om. the first instance; u also om. “their”) so that the numbers with each occurrence of it became disturbed. With no number used before the first ba-baµh\ra, in some mss. (g 2080) the number before the second instance was changed from “two” to “four,” since four rivers remained to be considered. The words for “Erythrean” (  tu) could have encouraged further confusion. b where (lit. “and”; om. β)—some say] “but where some say” q; for yebeµlu, which is actually a perfect tense form, T9 u read yebelu (“saying”). c wilderness] pr.   ez, in which the sentence reads: “The first quarter is called ‘eastern [s\ebaµh\aµwi]’ because it is the first [qadaµmaµwi].” Two Aramaic fragments preserve part of the line, and, although neither contains the actual name of the region, the use of ‫קדמיא‬ for first (the cognate of the word used in the Ethiopic...