Twelve Gates, Windows, and Chariots (75:4–9)

From: 1 Enoch 2

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463 Twelve Gates, Windows, and Chariots 4 In the same waya Uriel showed me twelve gatesb open in the disc of the sun’s chariotc in the sky from which the rays of the sun come outd ande from which its heat comes out upon the earth when they are opened at the times stipulated for them.f 6a / The same is the case when the twelve gatesb are openedc in the sky ond the boundaries of the earth, from which the sun, the moon, the stars, and all the workse of the sky emerge,f on the east and ong the west. 7/ There are many windows openeda on the left and right.b Each window at its time emits heat like those gates from which the stars emerge as he orderedc them andd in which they sete according to their number. 8/ I saw chariots in the sky traveling in the world abovea those gates in which the stars that do not setb revolve. 9/ One is larger than all of them and it is the one thata encircles the whole world.b 4a In the same way] pr. wa- T9 . b Uriel showed me—gates] om. g, parablepsis from ኀዋኅወ፡ (h…awaµh…wa = gates) to ርኅዋተ፡ (reh…ewaµt = open); m reads “gates” a second time instead of “open”; q om. “open” and inserts a conjunction before the verb; some other mss. move the adjective directly after the noun. c the sun’s chariot] the α and β mss. have different ways of expressing possession: a construct phrase in α, and two nouns associated by za- (“of”) in β. d from (“with” T9 ) which the rays of the sun come out] om. g by parablepsis from the first እምኔሆሙ፡ ይወፅእ፡ (  ašru wa-kel  aµšer wa-kel  ašru wa-kel  ašru wa-kel  ašru wa-kel  aµšr wa-kel  aµlam (“world”) has a spatial meaning. The identity of the gates in v. 8 is something of a problem, one already raised in connection with v. 7. In the context, it seems as if these are the twelve gates through which sun, moon, and stars journey, but the writer again mentions only the stars. Are these separate gates for the stars? Neugebauer wrote about vv. 8-9: “There are chariots (obviously for stars) ‘above the gates’ for those stars which never set, i.e. circumpolar stars. One of their circuits is the greatest, encircling the whole (always visible) world.” In a footnote, he describes Dillmann’s translation “crosses the entire world” (“durchkreist die ganze Welt”) as “senseless. Obviously Dillmann was not familiar with the concept ‘greatest always visible circle’. . . In Greek astronomy this circle is known as the ‘arctic circle.’”14 If this is what the author means, then the gates seem not to be the six of the eastern and western horizons. As Neugebauer indicated, the chariots are for the stars, and they go about their course of never setting while in those chariots. He takes “one of them” in v. 9 to mean one circuit of a star that is larger than the circuits for the others.15 Editorial Placement As the commentary has disclosed, there are numerous points of connection binding parts of chap. 75 with other sections of the Book of the Luminaries. Much of the chapter serves the literary end of closing the preceding section, especially 75:3, and of preparing VanderKamAA.indd 466 8/9/2011 7:23:39 PM 467 75:4-9 16 Rau, “Kosmologie, Eschatologie,” 164–201. the way for what follows in chap. 76 (and in chap. 77 to a degree). Some textual and interpretive issues do, however, render such analysis more difficult. Rau has argued at length that 1 Enoch 72:3 and 75:4-7 play pivotal roles in the redactional shaping of the Book of the Luminaries.16 These two units enclose the sections about the sun, moon, and stars, without challenging the position of 72:1 as a superscript for the entire book. 1 Enoch 72:3, which presents the gates in the east and west and announces that the sun, moon, and stars pass through them, prepares for the treatment of the sun in 72:6-32, the moon in 73:1—74:9 (both sun and moon figure in 74:10-16), and the stars in 74:17— 75:3. 1 Enoch 75:3, with its sweeping summary, refers to all that has preceded it (less 72:1) and shows that this part...