The Leaders and the Seasons (75:1–3)

From: 1 Enoch 2

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457 1 Rau, “Kosmologie, Eschatologie,” 223–39; Olson, Enoch, 155. 1 The leadersa of the heads of the thousands who are over all the creation and over all the stars (have to do) withb those four (days) that are added; they are not separatedc from their positiond according to the calculatione of the year, and theyf serve on the four days that are not reckonedg in the calculation of the year. 2/ People err regarding thema because those lights truly serveb (in)c the position of the world: one in the firstd gate,e one in the third heavenly gate, one in the fourth gate,f and one in the sixth gate,g and the accuracy of the worldh is completedi in the 364 positions of the world. 3/ For Uriel the angel whom the Lord of eternal glory seta over all the heavenly luminaries, in the sky and in the world, showed me the sign, the seasons, the year and the days so that they may ruleb the firmament,c appeard above the earth, and bee leaders of days and nights—the sun, the moon, the stars, and all the serving entities that go around in all the heavenly chariots. The Leaders and the Seasons 1a The leaders] pr. wa- 2080 β; 2080 T9 have a sg. form (“leader”). b with] pr. wa- 2080 T9 m t u β; + “which” (  aµmata] [ዓመት፡ (  >aµmat) in 2080]) rather than “world/ eternity” (ዓለም፡ [  >aµlam]), and q has another word for “year” (ዓም፡ [  >aµm]). i is completed] T9 reads a subjunctive form; q t u read “it will complete.” 3a whom the Lord of eternal glory (“spirits” q [as in the Similitudes]; + za- [“which (is)”] β; T9 has: “glory of eternity”) set] the α mss. lack a resumptive suffix on the verb, while 2080 β have it. b they may rule (ይምልኩ፡ [yemleku])] they may cause to rule (ያምልኩ፡ [yaµmleku]) g T9 . c the firmament (lit. “the face of the sky”)] pr. “in” q β; for “sky” q has “earth.” d appear] T9 “examine” (the correct ይትረአዩ፡ [yetra  aµlam in this phrase as, in the next section, the writer spells out exactly where those positions are. Another possible meaning is “eternity,” so that the positions would be called everlasting. The specification of where the four stations/positions of the world are located returns the reader to the twelve-gate system described in 1 Enoch 72 and employed there and in chap. 74. The positions associated with the four special days are said to be in gates 1, 3, 4, and 6; this agrees exactly with the details in chap. 72 for the months with thirty-one days: vv. 13 (sixth gate), 19 (fourth), 25 (first), and 31 (third). In chap. 72, the order is dictated by the course of the solar year, while in 75:2 the sequence is in the numerical order of the gates. The author underlines his point at the end of v. 2 with a pair of comments about the year. Almost all of the mss. make the word translated “accuracy” VanderKamAA.indd 459 8/9/2011 7:23:38 PM 460 7 Leslau, Dictionary, 594: “carefulness, minuteness, precision, accuracy, diligence, fitness, perfect harmony.” See 72:10, 16, 22, 26, 32 (regarding the 364-day year); 73:8; 74:12 (twice, both for the exact length of the year); 78:13; 79:5; 82:5, 7. 8 See Albani, Astronomie und Schöpfungsglaube, 102–3, for this spatial aspect of   >aµlam. 9 In Eth. Gen 1:14, the terms are ta  aµlam, see 74:17 (where several phrases resemble ones in 75:2; cf. also 74:2, 9, 12 where the form is menbaµr). The passage stresses the structural side of the calendar: the creation has positions in it, ones that do not change, and the luminaries inalterably pass through them.8 n  3  To buttress his case, the writer resorts to the revelatory framework of the entire composition: all of the astronomical information comes from Uriel. Here the great angel is accorded a slightly different description from the one he receives elsewhere: he is not called the leader of the luminaries but the one whom the Lord himself had appointed over all the luminaries. To this juncture the Book of the Luminaries has referred to him as the holy angel who was with Enoch, as the leader of the luminaries, and as the one who revealed all the information to the patriarch (72:1; 74:2; see also 78:10; 79...