Enoch Is Taken Away (70:1–2)

From: 1 Enoch 2

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315 1 Knibb (“Translation,” 340) thinks that both chaps. 70 and 71 are a later addition, but he gives no reason why chap. 70, in particular, should be an addition. 2 See also the switch in Tobit between the superscription (1:1-2) and the autobiographical narrative in 1:3—3:15, as well as in the introduction of the Parables between the superscription (37:1) and the body of the introduction (37:2-5). 3 Black, Enoch, 280: “raised up to”; Olson, “Son of Man,” 30–33; and idem, “Son of Man Revisited,” 233–40: “exalted by.”  70:1-2 These two verses were composed, in my view, as the conclusion to the Book of Parables.1 Their third person form corresponds to 37:1, and in that they follow the subscript to the third parable (v. 69:29g) they are a mirror counterpart to chap. 37 as a whole, which provides an introduction to the book before the superscription to the first parable in 38:1—thus giving the work a kind of ring structure: superscription and introduction to the book (37:1, 2-5) | superscription to first parable (38:1a)|| body of the book || subscript to third parable (69:29g) | conclusion to book (70:1-2). Compatible with this—though surely not definitive2 —is the abrupt switch in 70:3 from the third person (70:12 ) to the first person autobiographical narrative that continues through chap. 71 to vv. 14b and 15b, the points at which the angel addresses Enoch in the second person. Complicating the interpretation of chap. 70 is a small variant in the MSS.—the omission of one word (see text note a on v. 1)—that results in two significantly different translations:3 Enoch Is Taken Away 1 And after this, while he was living, his name was lifted up into the presence of that Son of Mana andb into the presence of the Lord of Spirits, from among those who dwell on the earth. 2 Hea was lifted up on the chariotsb of the windc and his named departed among them.e 70:1a while ----- Man] tala>aμla semu h\eyaμw bah…abeμhu (bah…aba gq 6281 | baqedma bah…aba T9 , a double translation) la(om. q) weaμla semu h\eyaμw lawea) that governs it, see Dillmann, Lexicon, 944. This Eth. verb, the equivalent of Heb. ‫יצא‬ and Aram. ‫יעא‬, has also been interpreted to refer to Enoch’s departure without recourse to the emendation I suggest: Dillmann, Henoch, 216: ging aus unter ihnen (“went out among them”), that is, er war nicht mehr unter den Menschen (“he was no longer among humans”); Charles, Enoch, 141, and Knibb Enoch 2:165: “vanished among them”; Martin, Hénoch, 158: disparut du milieu d’eux (“he disappeared from their midst”); Uhlig, Henochbuch, 631: verschwand unter ihnen (“he vanished among them”); Chialà, Enoc, 135: usci di tra loro (“went out from among them”). 70 NickelsburgB.indd 315 NickelsburgB.indd 315 8/9/2011 7:19:19 PM 8/9/2011 7:19:19 PM 316 4 It is unlikely that “son of man” is used here of Enoch in a generic sense, as Black (Enoch, 250) suggests. Such usage occurs in the Parables only in 60:10 in an interpolation, and as a form of address like that in Ezekiel. 5 Olson, “Son of Man.” 6 Ibid., 30. 7 Knibb, “Translation,” 346–48. 8 Thus Knibb, “Translation,” 348; and Olson, “Son of Man Revisited,” 235. 9 Olson, “Son of Man Revisited,” 236, a slight revision from his previous translation published in Olson, Enoch, 133. 10 Olson, “Son of Man Revisited,” 236. 11 See Isaac (“Enoch,” 49), who translates “living name.” 12 Olson, “Son of Man Revisited,” 234. 13 Flemming and Radermacher, Henoch, 90; Charles, Enoch, 141; Uhlig, Henochbuch, 631; Chialà, Enoc, 134; and Knibb, “Translation,” 349: “it is not the case that the rendering of semu h\eyaw by ‘his name during his life time’ or ‘his name while he was living’ is forced or implausible”—a statement to which Olson does not respond. while he was living, his name was lifted up into the presence of the/that Son of Man and into the presence of the Lord of Spirits the living name of that Son of Man was raised up to/ exalted by the Lord of Spirits. In the first instance, Enoch is brought up into the presence of the Son of Man and the deity; in the other, Enoch...