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George W. E. Nickelsburg was born in 1934 in San Jose, California, and lives in Issaquah, Washington. He received his education at Valpa­ raiso University, Concordia Seminary , Washington University, and Harvard University, where he did his doctoral work with Krister Stendahl, Helmut ­ Koester, Frank Moore Cross, and John Strugnell. In 1963–64, he was Thayer Fellow at the American School of Oriental Research in Jerusalem and a field supervisor in archaeological digs at Tell Ta’annek, the Wâdi-ed-Dâliyeh, and Tell el-Ful. For three years he served as pastor of a Lutheran parish in Akron, Ohio. Then for more than three decades he taught on the faculty of the University of Iowa, where he was director of its School of Religion for five years and developed public programming in religion and the arts. He retired as Professor Emeritus in 2000. The history and literature of early Judaism and the relationships between early Judaism and Christian origins have been the special focus of Nickelsburg’s research. His monographs include 1 Enoch 1 (Hermeneia; Fortress Press, 2001); Ancient Judaism and Christian Origins (Fortress Press, 2003); 1 Enoch: A New Translation (with James VanderKam, Fortress Press, 2004); Jewish Literature between the Bible and the Mishnah (2d ed.; Fortress Press, 2005); and Resurrection, Immortality, and Eternal Life in Intertestamental Judaism and Early Christianity (expanded ed., 2006). He has also coedited several collections and Festschriften that have made lasting contributions, including Christians among Jews and Gentiles: Essays in Honor of Krister Stendahl on His Sixty-Fifth Birthday (Fortress Press, 1986); Early Judaism and Its Modern Interpreters (1986); The Future of Early Christianity: Essays in Honor of Helmut Koester (Fortress Press, 1991); and Early Judaism: Texts and Documents on Faith and Piety (with Michael Stone, 2d ed.; Fortress Press, 2009). He is also the author of more than ninety articles and several hundred dictionary and encyclopedia entries. In the Society of Biblical Literature , he was chair of the Pseudepigrapha Group (1973–80), co-chair of the Wisdom and Apocalypticism in Early Judaism and Early Christianity Group, and co-editor of the series Septuagint and Cognate Studies. He has served on the editorial boards of the Catholic Biblical Quarterly, Dead Sea Discoveries, the ­ Dictionary of Judaism in the Biblical Period: 450 b.c.e. to 600 c.e.(1999), and the Dictionary of Religious Writings in Late Antiquity (2006). The Authors James C. VanderKam was born in 1946 in Cadillac, Michigan , and currently lives in Granger, Indiana. He received his undergraduate degree at Calvin College and his divinity degree at Calvin Theological Seminary. After a Fulbright year of research at the University of St. Andrews (Scotland), he earned his Ph.D. from Harvard University in 1976, working with Frank Moore Cross, John Strugnell, Thomas Lambdin, and Paul Hanson. He began his teaching career in the Department of Philosophy and Religion at North Carolina State University (1976–91) and in 1991 accepted an appointment in the Department of Theology at the University of Notre Dame. In 1998 he was named John A. O’Brien Professor of Hebrew Scriptures at Notre Dame, a position he holds to the present. VanderKam’s research has focused on Jewish literature written during the Second Temple period, especially 1 Enoch, Jubilees, and the Dead Sea Scrolls. Among his monographs are Textual and Historical Studies in the Book of Jubilees (1977), Enoch and the Growth of an Apocalyptic Tradition (1984), The Book of Jubilees (2 vols., 1989), The Dead Sea Scrolls Today (1994; 2d ed., 2010), Enoch: A Man for All Generations (1995), Calendars in the Dead Sea Scrolls (1998), From Revelation to Canon (2000), An Introduction to Early Judaism (2001), The Book of Jubilees (2001), The Meaning of the Dead Sea Scrolls (with Peter Flint, 2002), From Joshua to Caiaphas: High Priests after the Exile (Fortress Press, 2004), and 1 Enoch: A New Translation (with George Nickelsburg, Fortress Press, 2004). He has co-edited several publications, among which are The Community of the Renewed Covenant (with Eugene Ulrich, 1994), The Jewish Apocalyptic Heritage in Early Christianity (with William Adler, Fortress Press, 1996), The Dead Sea Scrolls after Fifty Years: A Comprehensive Assessment (with Peter Flint, 1998, 1999), Encyclopedia of the Dead Sea Scrolls (2 vols., with Lawrence Schiffman, 2000); and he has been consulting editor for thirteen volumes in Discoveries in the Judaean Desert series (nine with Monica Brady, 1994–2009). He is also the author of hundreds of articles in journals, encyclopedias, and dictionaries. He has served on...


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