The Last Kings of Judah (Jehoahaz, Jehoiakim, Jehoiachin, and Zedekiah) and the Rise of Cyrus (36:1–23)

From: 2 Chronicles

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530 1/ The people of the land2 took Jehoahaz3 the son of Josiah, and they anointed him4 and made him king instead of his father.5 2/ Joahaz6 was twenty-three years old7 when he became king,8 and he reigned for three months9 in Jerusalem .10 3/ The king of Egypt removed him from being king11 in Jerusalem.12 He taxed the land13 one hundred talents of silver14 and one talent of gold.15 4/ The king of Egypt16 made Eliakim17 his brother king18 over Judah and Jerusalem, and he changed his name to Jehoiakim.19 Necho20 took Joahaz21 his brother and brought him to Egypt.22 5/ Twenty-five years old was Jehoiakim when he became king, and eleven years he reigned23 in Jerusalem.24 He did evil in the eyes of Yahweh his God.25 6/ Against him26 Nebuchadnezzar the king of Babylon came up, and he bound him in fetters to take him27 to Babylon. 7/ Nebuchadnezzar28 brought29 some of the vessels of the house of Yahweh to Babylon,30 and he put them in his palace in Babylon. 8/ The rest of the acts of Jehoiakim31 and his abominations32 which he did33 and what was found against him34 are written in the book of the kings of Israel and Judah.35 Jehoiachin36 his son became king in his place. 9/ Jehoiachin37 was eighteen years old38 when he became king and he reigned three months39 in Jerusalem. He did that which is evil in the eyes of Yahweh . 10/ At the turn of the year King40 Nebuchadnezzar sent and brought him to Babylon, together with the desirable vessels of the house of Yahweh,41 and he made Zedekiah his brother42 king over Judah and Jerusalem . 11/ Twenty-one years old was Zedekiah when he became king, and he reigned eleven years in Jerusalem.43 12/ He did that which was evil in the eyes of Yahweh his God.44 He45 did not humble himself before Jeremiah the prophet from the mouth of Yahweh.46 13/ And also against King Nebuchadnezzar he revolted who had made him swear by God.47 He stiffened his neck and hardened his heart48 from turning back to Yahweh49 the God of Israel. 14/ Also all50 the leaders of Judah, the priests, and the people51 were exceedingly unfaithful52 according to all the abominations of the nations.53 They defiled the house of Yahweh 36:1-23 The Last Kings of Judah (Jehoahaz, Jehoiakim,­ Jehoiachin, and Zedekiah) and the Rise of Cyrus Translation1 1 In 2 Chr 36:2a-c 4a and 5a-d LXX, where there is no corresponding Hebrew text, there is a translation of 2 Kgs 23:31b-33a, 35, and 24:1-4 respectively. The same phenomenon occurs at 2 Chr 35:19a-d LXX, where there is a translation of 2 Kgs 23:24-27. Although there is a corresponding Hebrew text at 2 Chr 36:3b-4, 5b, and 8 LXX, the translation in these verses is actually equivalent to 2 Kgs 23:33b34a , 36b-37, and 24:5-6a respectively. See also 2 Chr 35:20 LXX, which contains a translation of 2 Kgs 23:29aba. My understanding of this phenomenon was presented in “New Evidence for an Old Recension of Reigns,” HTR 60 (1997) 93–105, to which Leslie C. Allen responded in “Further Thoughts on an Old Recension of Reigns,” HTR 61 (1968) 483–91, and to which I responded in “Supplements to the Paralipomena: A Rejoinder,” HTR 62 (1968) 492–95. I maintained that the supplements in Chr LXX had been taken from the Kgs LXX translation of the verses in question and primarily from the proto-Lucianic recension of Kgs LXX. Allen argued that the Hebrew text of Chronicles itself had been supplemented by these verses, which were then translated in Chr LXX. Both of us maintained our original positions at the end of this discussion. Allen also claimed (Greek Chronicles, 1:216) that the Hebrew of 2 Chr 36:1-8 had been completely abandoned and replaced by 2 Kgs 23:30—24:6. The evidence for 2 Chr 36:1-2//2 Kgs 23:30b-31 is insufficient to decide one way or the other, in my judgment, but the Vorlage behind 2 Chr 36:3a and 6-7 LXX is clearly the Hebrew of Chronicles, as Allen himself concedes. See also the textual notes on 2 Chr 35:19-20. 2 $rah ![. 1 Esdr 1:32 oiJ ejk tou...