The Reign of Manasseh (33:1–20)

From: 2 Chronicles

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471 1/ Manasseh was twelve years old when he became king, and he reigned fifty-five1 years in Jerusalem. 2/ He did that which was evil in the eyes of Yahweh according to the abominable practices2 of the nations whom Yahweh had dispossessed before the Israelites . 3/ He rebuilt3 the high places that Hezekiah his father had torn down;4 he erected altars5 for the Baals and made sacred poles6 and worshiped the whole host of heaven and served them. 4/ He built7 altars in the house of Yahweh, of which Yahweh had said, “In Jerusalem shall my name be forever.”8 5/ He built altars for the whole host of heaven in the two courts of the house of Yahweh. 6/ He made his sons9 pass through the fire in the valley of the son of Hinnom,10 practiced soothsaying and augury11 and sorcery,12 and dealt with mediums and wizards. He did much evil in the eyes of Yahweh, provoking him to anger. 7/ He placed the carved image of the idol that he had made in the house of God, of which God had said to David and to Solomon his son, “In this house and in Jerusalem, which I have chosen from all the tribes of Israel, I shall place my name forever,13 8/ and I will never again cause the feet of Israel to turn aside14 from the land that I appointed15 for your ancestors ,16 if only they will be careful to do all17 that I have commanded them—all the law, the statutes, and ordinances given by Moses.” 9/ Manasseh ­ misled Judah and the inhabitants of Jerusalem so that they did more evil than the nations whom Yahweh had destroyed before the ­ Israelites. 10/ Yahweh spoke to Manasseh and to his people, but they did not pay heed.18 11/ 19 Yahweh brought against them the officers of the army of the king of Assyria, who took Manasseh captive in hooks,20 bound him with fetters, and brought him to Babylon. 12/ While he was in distress, he entreated the favor of Yahweh his God and humbled himself greatly before the God of his ancestors. 13/ He prayed to him, and he granted his prayer,21 heard his plea, and returned him to Jerusalem to his kingdom. Then Manasseh recognized that Yahweh is God. 14/ Afterwards, he built an outer wall for the city of David west22 of the Gihon, in the valley, reaching the entrance at the Fish Gate; he carried it around23 Ophel, and raised it to a very great height. He also put commanders of the army in all the fortified cities in Judah. 15/ He took away the foreign gods and the idol 33:1-20 The Reign of Manasseh; 33:21-25 The Reign of Amon Translation 1 vmjw; a translation is lacking in LXXAal (haplography because of the preceding “fifty.”) In readings discussed in nn. 4, 9, and 17, Chronicles presupposes a text of Kings other than Kings MT. 2 twb[wtk. LXX ajpo; tw'n bdelugmavtwn. Initial k was misread as m. 3 @byw bvyw. Literally: “He turned and built.” 4 $tn; Chr LXX katevspasen and 2 Kgs 21:3 LXX. Kings MT dba piel. $tn in Chr presupposes a reading in Kgs different than Kgs MT. 5 twjbzm; cf. 2 Kgs 21:4 MT, LXX. Chr LXX sthvla~ = twbxm “standing stones.” 2 Kgs 3:2 Jehoram removed the pillar (tbxm; LXX plural) of Baal that his father Ahab had made; 2 Kgs 10:26, 27 destruction of the pillar/pillars (tbxm, twbxm) of Baal in Jehu revolution. Chr LXX may have been influenced by 2 Chr 31:1 where all Israel broke down the pillars (twbxmh). Cf. 2 Kgs 12:10 (9) MT jbzmh “the altar.” Kgs LXXA ammasbh = twbxmh “the pillars.” 6 twrva. Chronicles uses this word only once in the singular (2 Chr 15:16). The feminine plural occurs also in 2 Chr 19:3. 7 hnbw. The verb is perfect with a w, instead of the expected waw consecutive with the imperfect. Cf. 2 Kgs 23:4, 5, 8, 10, 12, 14, 15 and GKC §112pp. 8 This verse is lacking in 2 Kgs 21:4 VL. Schenker (“Text History of 1–2 Kings,” 7–15) argues that this VL reading is original and that this verse was introduced by Chronicles and only later copied into a manuscript of Kings. He admits, however, that this verse could be lacking because of...