Jehoshaphat’s Judicial Reform (19:4–11)

From: 2 Chronicles

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271 1 axyw bvyw. These verbs link back to the earlier teaching mission in 2 Chr 17:7-9. 2 MT !km[w. The Chronicler’s language here is elliptical and does not justify Rudolph’s emendation to !km[ awhw (p. 256), citing VL and alleging a haplography of awh after hwhyl. Driver (Introduction , 537) and Kropat (Syntax, 63–64) note that the Chronicler often omits subjects, or even verbs, from his sentences. 3 rbdb; LXX lovgoi “(and with you are) words (of discernment = th'~ krivsew~).” 4 !ynhkhw !wylh @m; LXX tw'n iJerevwn kai; tw'n Leueitw'n “some of the priests and the Levites.” LXX follows the normal order of these two ranks of clergy. Willi (Die Chronik als Auslegung) considers the Levites a secondary addition. See the commentary . 5 hwhy fpvml. Dillard, 147: “to administer the law of Yahweh.” 6 !lvwry ybvy ybyrlw; cf. Curtis and Madsen, 404; Rudolph, 256; and NEB. LXX kai; krivnein tou;~ katoikou'nta~ ejn ÆIerou­ salhm “and to judge the inhabitants of Jerusalem.” Cf. VL Vg. Japhet (770) reconstructs the text similarly to my proposal except that the first word is kept in the singular. MT !lvwry WbvuY:w" byrlw “and for legal cases [taking the noun collectively], and they returned to Jerusalem.” As Whitelam (Just King, 199) points out, there is no evidence that this court was ever peripatetic. Note the important suggestion of ­ Dillard (146) who repoints the verb to Wbv]YEw" “and they lived [in Jerusalem]” and has it begin a new sentence. This solution is favored also by Wilson, “Israel’s Judicial System,” 244–45 n. 20. J. Heller (“Textkritisches zu 2 Chr 19:8,” VT 24 [1974] 371–73) reviews various solutions to this textual problem and then proposes a reconstruction in two layers. The oldest layer read wbvyw in the hiphil, “And they caused Jerusalem to repent,” which was later changed to the qal that we find in MT. See the commentary. 7 lkw; casus pendens. GKC 143d. LXX pa'~ ajnhvr “any man.” This Greek is corrupted from the word pa'san. The letters hr arose via dittography before krivsin (HR//KR). Cf. Allen, Greek Chronicles, 2:40. 8 !dl !d @yb. Throntveit, When Kings Speak, 48: “concerning murder or manslaughter.” See Exod 21:12-14; Deut 17:8-9 for distinctions drawn between various kinds of violent deaths. 9 whydbzw; a few Hebrew mss Syr and Arab read whyrkzw “Zechariah.” 10 bwfh ![. BHS (cf. Rudolph, 256) suggested inserting yc[ “doers of” after ![ “with those who do that which is good,” but this conjectural addition may not take adequate account of the Chronicler’s elliptical style. 4/ Jehoshaphat resided in Jerusalem, but he again went out1 among the people from Beersheba to the hill country of Ephraim and brought them back to Yahweh the God of their ancestors. 5/ He appointed judges in the land, in all the fortified cities of Judah, city by city. 6/ He said to the judges, “Look how you act, for you do not judge for humanity but for Yahweh. He will be with you2 in every matter3 of judgment . 7/ Now, let the fear of Yahweh be on you. Be careful and act for there is no injustice, respecting of persons, or taking a bribe with Yahweh our God.” 8/ Also in Jerusalem Jehoshaphat appointed some of the Levites and the priests4 and heads of ancestral houses of Israel for the justice of Yahweh5 and for legal cases of the inhabitants of Jerusalem.6 9/ He commanded them, “Thus you shall act in the fear of Yahweh, in fidelity, and with a perfect heart. 10/ As for every7 case which comes to you from your fellow citizens who live in their cities, between one kind of homicide and another,8 between instruction or commandment, or statutes or ordinances, you shall warn them so that they not become guilty against Yahweh, lest wrath come against you and your fellow citizens. Thus you shall act and you shall not incur guilt. 11/ Amariah the chief priest will be over you in every matter concerning Yahweh, and Zebadiah9 the son of Ishmael, the leader of the house of Judah, will be over you in every matter of the king. The Levites who are present with you shall be your officials. Be strong and act, and may Yahweh be with the good.”10 19:4-11 Jehoshaphat’s Judicial Reform Translation 19 2Chronicles_1.indd 271 9/21/2012 5:52:52 AM 272 distinction...