22

From: 1 Chronicles

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22 2/ Translation David gave orders to gather1 the resident aliens who were in the land of Israel, and he appointed some of them2 as stonecutters to prepare dressed stones for building the house of God. 3/ David also provided iron in abundance for nails for the doors of the gates and for the wooden beams, as well as bronze in abundance beyond weighing, 41 and cedar logs beyond counting -for the Sidonians and Tyrians brought cedar logs in abundance for David. 5/ David thought to himself, 3 "My son Solomon is young and inexperienced, and the house to be built for Yahweh must be exceedingly magnificent, famous and an object of praise for all the lands; I will therefore make preparations for it."4 So David made preparations in abundance before he died. 6/ Then he called Solomon his son and commissioned him to build a house for Yahweh the God of Israel. 7/ David said to Solomon, " My son,51 had it in my heart to build a house for the name of Yahweh my God. 8/ But the word of Yahweh came to me, saying , 'You have shed much blood and you have carried out great wars. You shall not build a house for my name, for you have shed much blood on the ground before me. 9/ See, a son shall be born for you. He will be a person of rest, and I will provide him rest from all his enemies round about, for Solomon will be his name, and peace and quietness I will give to6 Israel in his days. 10/ He will build a house for my name, and he will be a son to me, and I will be a father to him. I will establish his royal throne over Israel forever.' 11/ "Now, my son, may Yahweh be with you and may you succeed, and may you build the house of Yahweh your God just as he has spoken concerning you. 12/ Only, may Yahweh give to you discretion and understanding - and may he commission you (as king) over Israel-to keep the law of Yahweh your God. 13/ Then you will prosper if you are careful to do the statutes and the ordinances which Yahweh commanded Moses for Israel. Be strong and of good courage. Do not be afraid or dismayed. 14/ See, with great effort I have provided for the house of Yahweh one hundred thousand talents of gold and one million talents of silver, and bronze and iron beyond weighing for they are so abundant; lumber and stone I have provided and you must add more to these. 15/ With you is an abundance of workers: stonecutters, masons, carpenters, and all kinds of artisans, skilled in working7 16/ gold, silver, bronze, and iron-without number. 8 Rise and get to work, and may Yahweh be with you." 430 22:2-19 David Prepares Building Materials; David's Private Speech to Solomon and Preliminary Exhortation to Leaders 1 LXX and other versions add "all"; cf. 2 Chr 2:16. 2 0:10, with Syr, Vg, Arab.; LXXL "them." Neither expression occurs in Chronicles MT, LXX. This prepositional phrase may not have been part of the Hebrew text, but it is necessary to supply something like this in translation. Cf. D;J<.l in 2 Chr 2:17. 3 10~'1. HALOT 1:66, meaning 4; BOB, 56, meaning 2. 4 1'?. As Rudolph, 150, notes, this could also be translated "for him" (Solomon). 5 'l::l, with Q, many Hebrew MSS, LXX, and other versions ; cf. v. 11. K 1l::l "his son." Either reading may be original. If the latter reading is chosen, the speech begins with the word "I." 6 '?.!l ]n~; two Hebrew MSS, Syr: '?.!l ;"1':1' "there will be over." 7 Vv. 15 and 16 are connected syntactically and therefore the verse division has been ignored in translating the sentence. 8 IOJOD ]'~ . Rothstein, 404, and Rudolph, 152, point out that metals are weighed and workers are counted. 9 One would expect lo~'? at this point to introduce the following quotation, and a translation of it appears in late minuscules of LXX and in Vg, but this may be the translator's decision and not a texLUal difference. 22:2-19 17/ David commanded all the leaders of Israel to assist Solomon his son.9 18/ "Is not Yahweh your God with you, and has he not given you rest on every side? For he has delivered into my hand the inhabitants of the land, and the land has been subdued before Yahweh and before his people. Structure From here to the end of 1 Chronicles, there is no canonical Vorlage on which the Chronicler depends, though he clearly used the materials describing the transition from Moses to Joshua in Deuteronomy 31 and Joshua 1 in constructing the speeches in 1 Chronicles 22 and 28, and he also utilized 1 Kgs 5:17-19 (3-5) as well as other materials from the Deuteronomistic History. Between the speeches of David in chaps. 22 and 28-29 he placed extensive materials on the gathering, numbering , and organizing of the cult personnel (chaps. 23-27). Braun deserves credit for demonstrating that the Chronicler gives nearly equal emphasis to both David and Solomon, in chaps. 22, 28-29, as patrons and builders of the temple, correcting an overemphasis on David alone in earlier scholarship. 1 The present chapter may be outlined as follows: I. 22:2-5. David prepares building materials (cf. v. 14 in his subsequent speech) and organizes a labor force (cf. vv. 15-16 in the subsequent speech). II. 22:6-16. David's private speech to Solomon (the public address to Solomon and the leaders comes in 28:1-10; cf. 28:19-21 ). This is the first of the farewell speeches of David. A. 22:6-13. David's disbarment from temple building and his designation of Solomon as the temple builder. Verses 7-10 look back to the past and report a word of Yahweh in vv. 8-10; vv. 11-13 are an admonition to Solomon about the future. B. 22:14-16. David provides materials and workers for the temple. III. 22:17-19. David's preliminary exhortation to the leaders of Israel. Verse 17 is an introduction and Braun, "Solomonic Apologetic." 22:1-19 19/ Now set your heart and your spirit to seek Yahweh your God. Rise up and build the sanctuary of Yahweh God in order to bring the ark of the covenant of Yahweh and the holy vessels of God to the house that will be built for the name of Yahweh." vv. 18-19 contain the speech itself, the second of David's farewell speeches. Rudolph, 151-52, and Braun, 221-22, have argued that vv. 14-16 and 17-19 are secondary. Rudolph noted that the figures for materials in vv. 14-16 are extraordinarily high in comparison with 1 Chr 29:4, 7, and 2 Chr 9:13, and that the numerous workers in vv. 15-16 are only a heightening of the information in v. 2. He felt that one would not expect the speech to continue after v. 13. None of these reasons, however, is compelling. The Chronicler may well have used both exaggerated and realistic figures for different rhetorical effects and chosen to include some information both in his narration and in the speech he composed. Braun observes that vv. 17-19 have often been considered a doublet of chap. 28 and there is no notice in chap. 22 of the convening of the Israelite leaders who are addressed in these verses. He believes that this public exhortation was inserted because the private speech in vv. 7-13 was so far separated from the public address in chap. 28 by the insertion of chaps. 23-27. If these latter chapters, at least not in their entirety, are not an insertion (see the commentary ad loc.), this argument collapses. The Chronicler may have wanted to insert a preliminary public exhortation to the leaders in vv. 1719 before the long excursus narrating the gathering, numbering, and organizing of cult personnel. The "last words of David" in chaps. 22, 28, and 29 contrast sharply with the poem called the Last Words of David in 2 Sam 23:1-7 and the final words of David to his successor Solomon in 1 Kgs 2:1-9, neither of which is incorporated by the Chronicler. The poem in 2 Samuel 23, narrated by David in the first person, compares a just ruler to the morning sun and asserts that God has made an everlasting covenant with David. The speech to Solomon in 1 Kings 2 urges him to keep the laws of 431 Yahweh, but also urges him to deal violently withJoab and Shimei and to deal loyally with the sons of Barzillai. David is the only biblical king for whom final speeches are preserved.2 Detailed Comment ary 22:2-5. David Prepares Building Materials and Organizes a Labor Force • 2 David gave orders to gather the resident aliens who were in the land ofIsrael: In 2 Chr 2:16-17 (17-18), building on the Vorlage in 1 Kgs 5:27-32 (13-18), the Chronicler reports that in preparation for building the temple Solomon took a census of the resident aliens in addition to the census of such resident aliens (implied in 1 Chr 22:23) that David his father had made, and that Solomon used more than one hundred fifty thousand of these as laborers, stonecutters, and overseers. The Chronicler reinforces and expands this idea in 2 Chr 8:7-10 V/ 1 Kgs 9:21-22), noting that for forced labor Solomon conscripted the survivors of the pre-Israelite inhabitants of the land and did not enslave the Israelites. The question in 1 Kings is whether Solomon also conscripted forced laborers from the Israelites themselves, which might seem to be implied by 1 Kgs 5:27 (13), which reports that Solomon conscripted thirty thousand for forced labor out of "all Israel." Mettinger has argued that Solomon conscripted the non-Israelites for an institutional , permanent levy (11.!.1 OD), whereas the Israelites themselves were pressed into temporary service (OD) for work on the temple and perhaps the king's palace.4 However that may be, the Chronicler did not include 1 Kgs 5:27 (13) in his account so that there is no ambiguity about what he intended, namely, that only nonIsraelites served as forced laborers.5 The Chronicler is presumably historically correct in backdating the practice of forced labor to the time of David in 1 Chr 22:2, since there appears in the second list of Davidic officials in 2 Samuel (2 Sam 20:23-26, without parallel in Chronicles ) an official named Adoram who was in charge of the forced levy (ODil ?.!.1). The conscription of forced laborers from the resident aliens follows logically after David's census of all Israel in the previous chapter. The repeated exhortations in Deuteronomy to dealjustly with the resident aliens (Deut 1:16; 24: 17; 27:19), to show them kindness (10:19; 26:12), and to refrain from oppressing them (24:14) indicates their precarious existence (Curtis and Madsen, 256). The "land of Israel" is used four times in Chronicles, and in every case it refers to a not clearly defined territory with set borders in which Israel lives. It indicates a territory far bigger than Yehud. It is the place where a people called Israel dwells, but non-Israelite inhabitants are not excluded, as can be seen by the resident aliens mentioned in this verse.6 he appointed some ofthem as stonecutters to prepare d1·essed stones: Such dressed or hewn stones were used for the foundations of Solomon's temple (1 Kgs 5:31 [17]; without a parallel in Chronicles) and for the four tables of the burnt offering in Ezekiel's description of the new temple (Ezek 40:42). Solomon assigned eighty thousand to quarry in the hill country (2 Chr 2:1 [2]). ari limestone for ashlar masonry could have been quarried in the vicinity ofjerusalem. Archaeologists have noted that quarrying activities must have been quite extensive in the light of the large quantities of ashlar masonry discovered in excavations.7 2 For observations on the relatively late character of the Hebrew in this chapter, see j ean Margain, "Observations sur I Chroniques, XXJI: Apropos des anachronismes linguistiques dans Ia Bible," Sem 24 (1984) 35-43. term IJ, originally "resident alien," has become identical with "proselyte." In her commentary, 547, she writes: "Those who survived from the 'seven nations' are 'aliens' (giirfm}, attached to the people of Israel and sharing their destiny." 432 3 The census taken in I Chronicles 21 was of all Israel. 6 4 Mettinger, Solomonic State Officials, 128-39. 5 Japhet, Ideology, 346, argues that a "resident alien" in Chronicles "is a member of a foreign people who has joined the people of Israel, adopted their religion , and thus lost his foreign identity." Chronicles 7 considers them as adjuncts to the Israelite community and eliminates their f01·eign affiliation. The See Thomas Willi, "Die alttestamentliche P•·agung des Begriffs ?~l(?' n~," in Nachdenken iiber Jsrae~ Bibel und Theologie (ed. H . M. Niemann, M. Augustin, and W. H. Schmidt; BEATA] 37; Frankfurt am Main: Pete•· Lang, 1994) 387-97. Y. Shiloh and Aharon Horowitz, "Ashlar Quarries of the Iron Age in the Hill Count•·y of Israel," BASOR 217 (1975} 23-24. • 3 David also provided8 iron in abundance for nailsfor the doors of the gates: Iron may have been in much greater supply after David's defeat of the Philistines since they seem to have had an early monopoly on iron refining in Palestine (1 Sam 13:19-22). The leaders or commanders also contributed one hundred thousand talents of iron (1 Chr 29:7) in addition to David's contribution. According to the Chronicler, Solomon used golden nails, weighing fifty shekels each, in the construction of the Most Holy Place (2 Chr 3:9, without a canonical Vorlage).9 and for the wooden beams: Recent commentators and English versions have suggested a translation of "clamps" for nn::mo?1, and Williamson has compared the strips of bronze on the gates of Shalmaneser III excavated at Balawat. 10 Piet Dirksen11 notes that in its only other occurrence in Chronicles (2 Chr 34:11) nnJno refers to "wooden beams" (nnJno? D'~ll1),12 and he casts doubt on the idea that one word could refer both to large wooden beams and to (small) iron clamps. He plausibly proposes that the nails were used both for the doors and for the wooden beams. HALOT 2:567 defines the word as "brace" or "truss" and indicates that this building component is made of iron in 1 Chr 22:3 and of timber in 2 Chr 34:11. bronze in abundance beyond weighing: The Chronicler had reported earlier that David had acquired vast quantities of bronze from the cities of Hadadezer, and that Solomon had used this bronze to make the molten sea, the pillars in front of the temple, and temple vessels (1 Chr 18:8). Tou king ofHamath had also sent to him bronze (18:10). The leaders of ancestral houses also contributed subsequently eighteen thousand talents of bronze (29:7). "Beyond weighing" is used elsewhere in the Bible only in 22:14, where it refers to David's abundant provisions of bronze and iron. See also 2 Chr 4:18//1 Kgs 7:47, where the weight of the bronze vessels 22:1-19 made by Solomon was "not determined." Bronze would be needed for the molten sea, the pillars in front of the temple, and for temple vessels (2 Chr 4:11-18//1 Kgs 7:15-47; cf. 2 Chr 2:7, 14, 16 [6, 13, 15]). • 4 cedar logs beyond counting: Huram, the king of Tyre, had earlier sent David cedar logs to build his own palace (1 Chr 14:1). Despite David's abundant supplying of cedar logs for the temple, Solomon later requested additional lumber supplies from Huram (2 Chr 2:7-8 [89 ]// 1 Kgs 5:20, 24 [6, 10]), and the Phoenician king gladly supplied this (2 Chr 2:10-15 [11-16]; cf. the similar text, but with a divergent order in 1 Kgs 5:20-25 [6-11]). The Chronicler resolves this potential tension caused by David's inadequate provision of lumber by having David tell Solomon in v. 14: "You must add more to these." The expertise of the Sidonians in cutting timber is noted in 1 Kgs 5:20 (6), though this information is not incorporated in Chronicles. Ezra reports that the Sidonians and Tyrians sent wood for the Second Temple through the port ofjoppa. Cedarwood was used for the roof and for the walls, from floor to ceiling, in the Holy Place and in the Holy of Holies (1 Kgs 6:9, 15-16 [not included in Chronicles]). For "beyond counting" see 1 Chr 22:16 and 2 Chr 12:3. Cypress (WnJ, 1 Kgs 5:22, 24 [8, 10]; 6:15, 34) and olivewood (1 Kgs 6:23, 31, 32, 33) were also used in the temple, though the Chronicler does not mention them. This reading is known in 4Q522, from the so-called joshua Cycles at Qumran, where we read of "cedars and cypress" brought by David from Lebanon. 13 • 5 David thought to himself: Verse 5 describes the reflections which led David to assemble materials and organize the workers during his lifetime. Throntveit (mistakenly) identified this verse as an edict, even though he recognized that David is speaking to himself .14 The narrator here is omniscient. 8 The hiphil of the verb ]1J is one of the favorite words of the Chronicler. See Curtis and Madsen, 30, #54. appears several times in Exodus: 26:4-5; 28:27; 36:11 (two times), 12, 17; 39:20. 13 Kalimi, "History of Interpretation," 20. 14 Throntveit, When Kings Speak, 22-23. 9 Apart from these two references, "nails" do not appear elsewhere in Kings or Chronicles. 10 ]. E. Curtis and]. E. Reade, eds., Art and Empire: Treasures from Assyria in the British Museum (New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1995) 98-99. 11 "What Are the mel;abberot in 1 Chron. 22:3?" BN 80 (1995) 23-24. 12 NRSV "and timber for binders." The word also 433 "Solomon is young and inexperienced": It has long been recognized that "l.liJ does not necessarily mean "young" in a strictly chronological sense. Rehoboam was "young and irresolute" when he ascended to the throne at fortyone years (2 Chr 13:7; cf. 12:13//1 Kgs 14:21). PseudoRashi calculated thatJoshua, a "l.liJ, was forty-two in Exod 33:11 and concluded that the Chronicler therefore added the word "inexperienced" to 1 Chr 22:5 (see also 29:1) to indicate that Solomon was actually young, twelve years old. 15 Carolyn Leeb has now shown that Hebrew "l.liJ in most cases describes the social status of a person who is partially independent of parental control and therefore often incorrectly translated as "young." 16 Solomon calls himself a "small"l.liJ" in 1 Kgs 3:7. If Solomon needed David's preparations to complete the temple because of his inexperience, David needed Solomon's ability to carry out the construction itself, since David hjmself was barred from building the temple (1 Chr 22:8). The youth of Solomon is echoed in 4Q522: "and his youngest son [will build it]."17 "the house to be built for Yahweh must be exceedingly magnificent , famous and an object ofpraisefor all the lands": Chronicles apparently does not distinguish between a house built for Yahweh (vv. 5-6, 11) and a house built for Yahweh's name (vv. 7, 8, 10). "Magnificent" (?'iJi1?)18 is an adjective formed by the hiphil infinitive construct of the verb meaning "to be great" (cf. 2 Chr 2:4 [5]).19 "Famous and an object for praise" is used elsewhere in the OT as a complimentary designation for Israel as the covenant people of God (Deut 26:19;Jer 13:11). The word "famous" (DiD?) is used in Zeph 3:19-20 to describe the condition of the exiled people after they have been brought home. The Chronicler now has David apply these adjectives describing the people to the temple. David's praise of the temple also reverses the judgment pronounced by Ezekiel onJerusalem: "Therefore I have made you a disgrace before the nations, and a mockery to all the countries" (Ezek 22:4). David's own fame had earlier gone out to all the lands (1 Chr 14:17). David made preparations in abundance before he died: This is the second reference to David's preparations in this verse. Cf. 1 Chr 28:11-19, which recounts additional preparations. David also dedicated some of the booty taken in warfare for sacred use (18:11/ / 2 Sam 8:11 and 2 Chr 5:1// 1 Kgs 7:51). 22:6-16. David's Private Speech to Solomon This is the only speech in Chronicles in which a king directly addresses his successor (but see 1 Chr 28:9-10, where David addresses Solomon within a speech to a larger assembly).20 A number of studies have shown how vv. 11-13 in this speech and vv. 10-12, 20 in chap. 28 make extensive use of a form or genre dealing with the induction of a leader into his office.21 Lohfink identified three elements in this form: (1) the formula of encouragement : "Be strong and courageous" (Josh 1:6; cf. 1 Chr 22:13; 28:10, 20); (2) the description of the task to which the individual is inducted (Josh 1:6; cf. 1 Chr 22:1; 28:10, 20); and (3) the formula of accompaniment: "Yahweh is with you" (Josh 1:9; cf. 1 Chr 22:11, 20). It is clear that in composing 1 Chronicles 22 and 28, which describe the installation of Solomon into the office of king, the Chronicler depended on the account of the installation ofjoshua. This makes the relationship of 15 The age of Solomon at his accession or death is not given in the Bible (2 Chr 9:30//1 Kgs 11:42). lung des Ubergangs der Fuhrung Israels von Moses aufJosue: Ein Beitrag zur alttestamentliche Theologie des Amtes," Scholastik 37 (1962) 32-44; Dennis J. McCarthy, "An Installation Genre?"fBL 90 (1971) 31-41; H. G. M. Williamson, "The Accession of Solomon in the Books of Chronicles," VT26 (1976) 351-61; and esp. Braun in his commentary, 222-23, in "Solomon," and in "Solomonic Apologetic." McCarthy also calls attention to the presence of this form in 2 Ch1· 19:5-7 Oehoshaphat's appointment of judges) and in 32:6-8 (Hezekiah's appointmem of army leaders). Parts of this form also occur in 1 Kings 2. 434 16 Carolyn Leeb, Away from the Father's House: The Social Location ofna'ar and na'amh in Ancient Israel OSOTSup 301; Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press, 2000). H er study, 16-17, supplants that ofjohn MacDonald, "The Status and Role of the Na'ar in Israelite Society,"fNES 35 (1976) 147-70, who suggested the meaning of "squire" or "young knight." 17 Kalimi, "History of Interpretation," 20. 18 HALOT 1:179, "beyond all measure." 19 "The house that I am about to build will be great, for our God is greater than other gods." 20 Throntveit, When Kings Speak, 42-44, classifies this speech as an oration, or perhaps an edict. 21 Norbert Lohfink, "Die deuteronomistische Darstel- David to Solomon much like the relationship of Moses to Joshua. The work of Moses, who led the people out of Egypt, was completed byJoshua. David's extensive preparations for the temple building were brought to completion by Solomon.22 Other connections with Joshua will be noted in the commentary on individual verses. Lohfink and McCarthy called attention to the parallel sequences in Deut 31:7-8 (Moses' speech to Joshua), Deut 31:23 (Yahweh's speech to Joshua), and Josh 1:2-9 (Yahweh's speech to Joshua) on the one hand and in 1 Chronicles 22 and 28 on the other. The twofold commissioning ofJoshua in Deuteronomy 31 andJoshua 1 is paralleled by the private and public speeches of David commissioning Solomon in 1 Chronicles 22 and 28. McCarthy concluded from 1 Chronicles 22 and 28 that the Chronicler had studied the sequence between Deuteronomy 31 and Joshua 1 with great care. The final speeches of Moses and David, in Joshua 1 and 1 Chronicles 28, instructJoshua and Solomon, respectively, to begin their tasks. Williamson has also detected allusions to the Joshua material in 1 Chr 29:23 (the obedience of Israel is noted on both occasions) and 29:25 (exaltation ofJoshua and Solomon; see the commentary below ad Joe.). 22:6-13. David's Disbarment from Temple Building and His Designation of Solomon as Temple Builder • 6 he called Solomon his son and commissioned him to build a house for Yahweh: For i11~ in the sense of "commission," see Josh 1:9 and 1 Kgs 2:1. Cf. 4Q522.23 • 7 1 had it in my heart: For the expression "have something in the heart," see also 1 Chr 28:2; 2 Chr 24:4; 29:10. While the idea of David proposing to build a temple is already present in 1 Chr 17:1-2//2 Sam 7:1-3, the 22:1-19 actual wording of this verse is built on Solomon's letter to Huram describing David's intent (2 Chr 6:7//1 Kgs 8:17).24 Thus the Chronicler has David say now what Solomon quotes him later as saying. to build a housefor the name of Yahweh my God: This Deuteronomic (Deut 12:11) and Deuteronomistic (1 Kgs 8:16, 19, 20, 29) designation for God's presence in the temple appears also in v. 19 and in the Solomonic account at 2 Chr 1:18 (2:1); 2:3-4 (2:4-5); 6:7, 10. • 8 the word of Yahweh came to me, saying: In 1 Chr 17:3//2 Sam 7:4 the divine oracle came to Nathan. Here David himself functions as a prophetic recipient of the word, unless we are to supply the idea that the word of Yahweh came to him "through Nathan." But, as Schniedewind points out, both here and in 1 Chr 28:3, 6, the role of the prophet Nathan recedes into the background and David claims to be directly instructed by God.25 In the Last Words of David in 2 Sam 23:1-7 David also claims the role of prophet: "The spirit of Yahweh speaks through me, his word is upon my tongue" (v. 2). You have shed much blood and you have carried out great wars . .. you have shed much blood on the ground before me: The rationale given by Solomon in his letter to Hiram for David not building the temple (1 Kgs 5:17-19 [3-5], not included in Chronicles) was that his father had been too preoccupied with wars, apparently leaving him insufficient time for undertaking the construction of the temple . In the oracle of Nathan, the objection to David's proposal to build a temple was divine opposition in principle to the idea of building a temple instead of the tabernacle, but then this was changed to say that David's son rather than David himself would build it (1 Chr 17:4-12//2 Sam 7:5-13), with no indication of how these two ideas can be reconciled with one another or why Solomon could build when David could not.26 The 22 Christine Mitchell, "Transformations in Meaning: lie; 4) the obedience of the people is emphasized in both accounts; and 5)Joshua is magnified with respect to Moses, so too Solomon is magnified." Kalimi, "History of Interpretation," 20. Solomon's Accession in Chronicles,"]HS (2002) 7, has summarized the similarities between DavidSolomon and Moses:Joshua as follows: "1) David's 23 disqualification as Temple builder linked to 24 Solomon's succession parallels Moses' disqualification from entering the land of Israel linked to 25 Joshua's succession; 2) the installation of Solomon 26 parallels that ofJoshua by including encouragement , the description of the task, and the assurance of divine aid; 3) both charges to Joshua and Solomon are first given in private and then in pub- "My father David had it in heart to build a house for the name of Yahweh, the God oflsrael." Word of God, 198. Students of 2 Samuel 7 have often offered a diachronic solution to this conundrum. See the discussion under Structure in 1 Chronicles 17. 435 Chronicler now attributes David's exclusion from temple building to two ideas: his wars (cf. 1 Kings 5) and his shedding of blood. Commentators have struggled with this latter explanation since David's wars were carried out under divine favor and as sign of divine blessing (e.g., 1 Chr 14:10, 14-15; 18:6, 13).Japhet, 397-98, nevertheless comments that though these wars were carried out in fulfillment of God's plan, blood was shed in them and this was David's paradoxical and tragic flaw. The opposition between war and temple is absolute in her mind, and war is presented in a negative light when Asa is told that because of his alliances he would have wars in the future (2 Chr 16:9). Hence the "man of war" David is excluded from temple building not only in practice but in principle. The Chronicler interprets David's involvement in wars not just as making him too busy, but also turning him into a "man of wars" (1 Chr 28:3) who carried out great wars (22:8). In myjudgment, the principal weakness in this argument is its equation of waging war with the shedding of blood. Donald F. Murray has shown that outside of Chronicles "shedding blood" is never used for killing by Israelite warriors in the context of war.27 Hence the use of this term three times in Chronicles with regard to David's wars (twice in 1 Chr 22:8 and once in 28:3) is an astounding charge. Murray also shows that shedding of blood pollutes the land, a condition that is totally incompatible with Yahweh's dwelling in the land (Num 35:3334 ). The difficulty with this latter passage is that the shedding of blood being discussed does not involve an Israelite killing someone in war. Munay attempts to remedy this situation by showing that a military person who has killed (nil) someone or has touched a corpse is ritually unclean and needs to be purified (Num 31:1924 ). He then tries to make such killing equivalent to "shedding blood" by noting another synonym for killing in Num 35:30 (ilJJ), a term used frequently in military contexts. On this basis he equates the three terms for killing and this permits him to tie together the provisions for uncleanness of a soldier in Numbers 31 with those for a shedder of blood in Num 35:33-34. Earlier Williamson, 154, had claimed that David was ritually unclean through warfare and therefore unfit to build the temple.28 But if David were ritually unclean in the Chronicler's mind for his warfare, then he could not have performed sacrifices either, as he did in 1 Chronicles 21. I am also not persuaded by his equation ofJiil ("kill"), ilJJ ("smite"), and 01 l::liD ("shed blood"). Gabriel observes that "shedding blood" is repeated twice in this verse-making it the preeminent charge29and that "shedding blood" always refers in the Bible to the violent death of one or more persons, not to the kind of killing done in war.30 Shimei, part of the house of Saul, had called David a "man of blood"- and several other names: "Murderer! Scoundrel"-after the death of Absalom and the collapse of his revolt (2 San1 16:7-8). At that time David had preventedjoab from executing Shimei and even stated that Yahweh had bidden Shimei to curse David. The Chronicler may have picked up the epithet "man of blood" (and hence "blood shedder") from the curses of Shimei, though he hardly fills it with the same content since he does not even mention the 27 "Under Yhwh's Veto: David as Shedder of Blood in Chronicles," Bib 83 (2001) 457-76.Joab's killing of Abner and Amasa were unlawful civil homicides (see I Kgs 2:5 (retaliating in time of peace for blood that had been shed in war], 31 [where Solomon speaks of shedding of blood]). KJosterneuburg: Osterreichisches Katholisches Bibelwerk, 1990) 67-72. The charge of shedding blood is also repeated in l Chr 28:3. Gabriel bases her understanding of "shedding blood" on the monograph of H. Christ, Blutve1giessen im Allen Testament : Der gewaltsame Tod des Menschen untersucht am hebriiischen Wort dam (Theologische Dissertationen 12; Basel: Friedrich Reinhardt KommissionsverIag , 1977). Christ, however, holds that I Chr 22:8 is an exception to the mle. 436 28 Allen, 430, notes that in the divinely initiated campaign against Midian ( urn 31:3), any who killed someone else or touched a dead body became unclean (Num 31:19-20, 24), and that unclean people were barred by the high priestjehoiada from going to the temple (2 Chr 23:19). See also Im, Davidbild, 139. 29 The mention of wars was picked up from Kings (1 Kgs 5:17-19 [3-5]). 30 Ingeborg Gabriel, Friede iibe1 lsrael (OBS 10; revolt of Absalom, let alone his death, in his account.31 Micheel suggests that David's shedding of blood refers to an incident like the death of Uriah, surely known by the Chronicler, though not included in his account.32 Much more likely to me is the idea proposed by Gabriel and Kelly that by "shedding blood" the Chronicler has in mind the seventy thousand who died as punishment for and in consequence of David's sinful census in the immediately preceding chapter.33 Kelly also notes that this census had been for military purposes and that it led not to military success but only to divine chastisement . Hence there is a logical connection between David's faulty war efforts and his shedding of blood. Finally, on the basis of Ezek 22:4, 9, 12, 13, Kelly holds that shedding blood need not be taken in the literal sense of spilling blood, but more metaphorically: You have culpably caused the death of innocent people. Shed blood pollutes the land (see Num 35:33, dealing with murder, and Ps 106:38-39, dealing with child sacrifice), and hence the Chronicler adds the words "on the ground before me" to his second statement of the bloodshedding charge. • 9 See, a son shall be born for you: This birth oracle for Solomon closely resembles that ofJosiah (1 Kgs 13:2; cf. the birth of the messianic prince in Isa 9:1-6 [2-7]). The dynastic promise is now linked explicitly to Solomon (contrast 2 Sam 7:12-16//1 Chr 17:11-14). The transition from David to Solomon in Chronicles proceeds peaceably without any other contenders for the throne, such as Absalom, Amnon, and Adonijah, reported in the Succession Narrative (2 Samuel 9-20; 1 Kings 1-2). 22:1-19 He will be a person ofrest, and I will provide him rest from all his enemies round about: This is the only use of "person of rest" in the OT, and might even be translated "ruler of rest."34 By this title Solomon is contrasted to David, who in 1 Chr 28:3 is called a "person of wars" or a "ruler of wars" (mon?o ili'~). According to Deut 12:9-11 Israel was to bring its sacrifices to the central sanctuary once Yahweh had given them rest from their enemies all around. In the book ofjoshua "rest" designates the completion of the conquest as the fulfillment of divine promise (Josh 1:13, 15; 21:44; 22:4; 23:1).35 Once such rest is achieved (Josh 11:23; seen. 36), the whole congregation assembled at Shiloh was supposed to set up the tent of meeting there (Josh 18:1), in line with Deut 12:811 . In the books of Samuel, David himself had achieved the condition of rest, as we see in 2 Sam 7:1, 11. The first of these references indicating that Yahweh had given David rest36 is omitted altogether by the Chronicler in 1 Chr 17:1; the second is changed by him from "I will give you rest from all your enemies" to "I will subdue all your enemies." In neither case, therefore, does David achieve rest according to the Chronicler. When the enemies are subdued in chap. 18, it is only through the military efforts of David. In the present verse Yahweh promises to give Solomon rest without any military effort on Solomon's part. The reference to rest in this verse is the only complete use of the rest formula in Chronicles, and it moves beyond the promise to David that he would defeat all his enemies (1 Chr 17:8, 10) by adding to the rest formula connected with Solomon the expression "round about." In Kings Solomon affirmed 31 Absalom is listed among David's children in 1 Chr 3:2 and as the father of Rehoboam's wife in 2 Chr 11:20-21. 51-56, who held that the Chronicle1· had made an ad hoc adaptation of I Kgs 5:17 (3) in equating bloodshed and warfare. In his view this provided a theological explanation for the fact that Solomon, not David, was the temple builder. This opened the way for God to intervene and approve Solomon as temple builder. 32 33 Rosemarie Micheel, Die Seher- und Propheten-Oberlieferungen in der Chronik (BBET 18; Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang, 1983) 16. This idea was expressed already by the medieval Jewish commentator Kimbi. One might also cite David's handing over of the 34 descendants of Saul to the Gibeonites for impalement (2 Sam 21:1-6), though this incident is not included in Chronicles. Brian E. Kelly, "David's Disqualification in I Chronicles 22:8: A Response to Piet B. Dirksen,"]SOT 80 35 (1998) 53-61. Kelly criticizes Dirksen, "Why Was Solomon Disqualified as Temple Builder? The 36 Meaning of 1 Chronicles 22,"]SOT 70 (1996) Gabriel, Friede, 74, though she confuses things a bit by suggesting a translation of "ruler of peace" (Friedensherrscher). She notes that ili't~: is used occasionally as a designation for the one who succeeds to the throne (2 Chr 6:16; 7:18;Jer 33:17). Cf. the similar idea, but expressed with the verb t:ipili, injosh 11:23 and 14:15. For other references to Yahweh giving rest see Exod 33:14; Deut 25:19;Josh 23:1; 2 Sam 7:1, 11; I Kgs 437 in a letter to Hiram that Yahweh had given him rest on every side (1 Kgs 5:18 [4],37 omitted in Chronicles) and this notion is picked up and developed by the Chronicler in this context while David's achievement of "rest" is removed.38 authorizes David's son (implicitly Solomon; see esp. Solomon will be his name, and peace and quietness I will give to Israel: By divine revelation Solomon is given his name, whereas in the Deuteronomistic History David named this second child of Bathsheba himself (2 Sam 12:24, not included in Chronicles).39 The name Solomon is then given an etiological etymology by connecting it to the word m'?ili.40 The noun "quietness" (~pip) is used only here in the Bible, but the verbal root ~pili functions in Judges to indicate the time of peace and quiet after the military activity of the judge (e.g., 3:11, 30; 8:28).41 1 Chr 17:14 in contrast to 2 Sam 7:16) to build the temple and applies the dynastic promise to him.42 In distinction from 1 Chronicles 17 and 2 Samuel 7, the second and the fourth clauses are interchanged while the first and the third remain in the same position. This means that the first two clauses start out with an emphasis on the third person pronoun: he will build a house; he will be a son to me, and the effect of this change is to put more emphasis on Solomon's sonship than on Yahweh as the divine parent and so exalt him as the equal to David. Yahweh's promise here is unconditional, though David adds a condition in 1 Chr 28:743 and David admonishes Solomon to be faithful in 28:9.44 The Chronicler also adds the expression "over Israel" to the mention of "his throne" in 17:12//2 Sam 7:13. • 10 He will build a housefor my name, and he will be a son to me, and I will be a father to him. I will establish his royal throne over Israelforever: David quotes here from the oracle of Nathan (1 Chr 17:12-13//2 Sam 7:13-14) that • 11 may Yahweh be with you: This is the third element in the form for the induction of a leader into office,45 here placed in the first position. 438 5:18 (4). Cf. also 1 Chr 23:25; 2 Chr 14:5-6; 15:15; 20:30. 37 Cf. 1 Kgs 5:1 (4:24), also not included in Chronicles : "Solomon was ruler over all the kingdoms." 38 Braun, 225, notes two other utilizations of "rest" in Chronicles. First, the temple becomes the place where Yahweh will take up his rest in the midst of the people (1 Chr 28:2; 2 Chr 6:41// Ps 132:8). Later kings have rest as part of the prosperity that results from faithfulness. See the Chronicler's interpretation of Asa (2 Chr 13:23 (14:1); 14:4-6 [5-7); 15:15),Jehoshaphat (2 Chr 20:30), and Hezekiah (2 Chr 32:22, emended according to LXX and Vg; see BHS). 39 According to 2 Sam 12:25 Solomon was also called Jedidiah ("beloved of Yahweh"). 40 Halpern, David's Secret Demons, 35, argues that the correct linguistic etymology of Solomon is "his replacement" or "(the God] made good his loss." For Solomon and peace see l Kgs 5:4 (4:24): "He had peace on all sides." 41 Cf. also 1 Chr 4:40; 2 Chr 13:23 (14:1); 14:4-5 (5-6); 20:30; 23:21. 42 This passage is not messianic, contra Theodor Lescow, "Das Geburtsmotiv in den messianischen Weissagungen beijesaja und Micha," ZAW 79 (1967) 205-7, who finds the first clear reference to the presence of a hope of the birth of the messiah in v. 9; orJ ames D. NewsomeJr., "Toward a New Understanding of the Chronicler and His Purposes ,"]BL 94 (1975) 208-10, who finds a su-iking similarity between the Chronicler and the views of Haggai and Zechariah 1-8. 43 "] will establish his kingdom forever if he is resolute in keeping my commandments and my judgments, as at this day." 44 According to Japhet, 398, the Chronicler in two cases in v. 10 chooses what is now the reading in 2 Samuel over that in his own account in 1 Chronicles 17: "a house for my name" (2 Sam 7:13) rather than "for me a house" (1 Chr 17:12), and "the throne of his kingdom" (or "his royal throne"; 2 Sam 7:13) rather than "his throne" (1 Chr 17:12). For the first of these, however, note that the Chronicler had already used the expression "a house for my name" in 22:8, which is not dependent on the wording in the oracle of Nathan. The Chronicler's use of the verb form 'n1J'::lill in 22:10 echoes 17:11//2 Sam 7:12, and neither his own composition in 1 Chr 17:12 nor its Vo-rlage in 2 Sam 7:13. 45 Cf. Deut 3 1:6, 8 (both verses speak of God "going" with Israel andjoshua, respectively), 23;Josh 1:5 (Yahweh will be with j oshua as he was with Moses), 9. and may you succeed: The hiphil of the verb n?~ is also found inJosh 1:8 and in1 Chr 22:13 and 2 Chr 7:11.46 The passage from Joshua is part of the paradigmatic installation genre, which has formed the basis for the Chronicler's composition of this passage. In 2 Chr 7:11, as in 1 Chr 22:11, the verb describes the successful completion of the building of the templeY Promised success also offers encouragement for Solomon to undertake the task (part one of the form). Success expressed by the verb ?J~ is also promised in Josh 1:7, 8, and 1 Kgs 2:3. may you build the house of Yahweh your God:. This is the description of the main task that Solomon is to perform, but he is also given the assignment to keep the law (i1l1n, v. 12). • 12 Only, may Yahweh give to you discretion and under· standing: The syntax of the verse is difficult, but the best solution seems to be to make the keeping of the law the sequence to and the result of Solomon's discretion and understanding. The restrictive "only" (l~) is somewhat parallel to Josh 1:7: "Only (pl), be strong and very courageous so that you are careful to act according to the law."48 The words following "understanding," "and may he [Yahweh] commission you (as king) over Israel,"49 are to be understood as a parenthesis that repeats Yahweh's commissioning of Solomon (v. 10). Huram praises Yahweh for giving Solomon discretion and understanding to build the temple (2 Chr 2:11 [12]), an addition the Chronicler made to the Vorlage in 1 Kgs 5:21 (7), which had only mentioned that Solomon was a wise son.50 In Chronicles Solomon's discretion is shown in his building of the temple rather than in his rule in general. 22:1-19 to keep the law of Yahweh your God: This clause begins, unusually, with the conjunction wiiw (lit. "and"), perhaps to indicate that this obedience is a consequence of his discretion and understanding rather than as a consequence of being commissioned as king. The obedience of Solomon is also urged in the next verse and in 1 Chr 28:7, 9,51 as such obedience was also commanded at the installation ofJoshua (Josh 1:7-8), which continues to exercise its influence in this passage. David also urged Solomon to abide by the law in 1 Kgs 2:1-4, a passage also influenced by the form for the induction of a leader into his office. • 13 Then you will prosper: While the same verb (hiphil of n?~) is used in vv. 11 and 13, the translation need not be the same. The first use promises success in Solomon's building program and this second use points to the positive blessings Solomon will receive under the principle of retribution if he obeys Yahweh's statutes and ordinances .52 This verse is again inspired byJosh 1:8, the only other use of n·?~n !~ in the Bible.53 Be strong and ofgood courage. Do not be afraid or dismayed : This fourfold formula of encouragement occurs exactly in this form only in 2 Chr 32:7 (without a Vorlage in 2 Kings), when Hezekiah "installs" the combat commanders into their office. A similar formula, however, occurs in David's next speech (1 Chr 28:20), where the word "act" has been added between the first and the last pair of imperatives as a fifth imperative. The Chronicler would have found a fourfold encouragement formula in Josh 1:9,54 where the third imperative is formed from the root rll)' apparently replaced here by the more common root ~l' .55 46 Braun, 223, demonstrates that its other uses in the Deuteronomistic History are incidental (e.g., 1 Kgs 22:12, 15; Deut 28:29). wrote 1 Chr 22:12aa, 12b-13 and then corrected himself by adding v. 12bfJ ("and may he commission you [as king] over Israel"), which made kingship rather than the temple contingent on keeping the law. 47 For 1 Chr 22:13 see below. 48 Piet B. Dirksen, "l Chron 22:12: The Chronicler in Actu Scribendi,"JNSL 20 (2000) 135-41. 49 Cf. v. 6. The same verbal root i11" is used also in the commissioning ofJoshua in Deut 31:14, 23; cf.Josh 1:9. 50 Cf. 2 Chr 2:10// 1 Kgs 3:9. 51 Cf.2Chr7:17-18. 52 Other passages referring to blessings coming from the obedience of the king to the Torah include 1 Chr 28:7-8; 2 Chr 6:16; 23:18. 53 Dirksen, "1 Chron 22:12," 138. I do not subscribe to Dirksen's proposal that the Chronicler originally 54 Cf. Josh 10:25, where the first and last pairs of imperatives are given in reverse order. 55 The first two imperatives are used frequently in pas· sages shaped by the induction form: Deut 31:7, 23; Josh 1:6, 7, 9, 18. 439 22:14-16. David Provides Materials and Workers for the Temple • 14 with great effort: This translation of "J.il:J is probable, but somewhat uncertain (cf. 1 Chr 29:2).56 LXX and Vg: "in my poverty"; NEB: "in spite of all my troubles";JB: "poor as I am";JPS: "by denying myself' (with Tg); BDB, 777, "in spite of my frustration"; HALOT 2:856, "in my misery" or "in my oppressed situation"; Mason, "even in my own difficult circumstances."57 "Poverty" hardly seems correct in view of the extravagant gifts David gives to the temple. I have provided for the house of Yahweh one hundred thousand talents ofgold: The amount of gold is enormous and unrealistic: roughly 6,730,000 pounds or 3,365 tons. At four hundred dollars an ounce, that much gold today would amount to more than forty-three billion dollars. The amount of gold David donates in 1 Chr 29:4 is three thousand talents, a reduction by 97 percent.58 According to 2 Chr 9:13//1 Kgs 10:14 Solomon's annual income was a mere six hundred sixty-six talents of gold.59 Allen, 434, calls these figures "rhetorical mathematics," and compares them to common expressions like "thanks a million" or "a thousand pardons." The intent in any case is to show the grandeur and magnificence of the temple (cf. 2 Chr 2:4 [5]). Neither gold nor silver is mentioned among the materials amassed by David earlier in the chapter (1 Chr 22:3-4). one million talents ofsilver: Everything said about the exaggerated and hyperbolic character of the amount of gold applies to the silver as well-and more so.60 The amount of silver would be 67,300,000 pounds or more than 33,000 tons. According to 1 Chr 29:7, the leaders contributed an additional ten thousand talents of silver. bronze and iron beyond weighing, for they are so abundant: David's gifts of bronze and iron were already mentioned in v. 3. lumber and stone I have provided: Stone may include jewels and fine building materials (Johnstone, 1:242; cf. 1 Chr 29:2). For wood see v. 4. In v. 2 David appointed stonecutters to prepare dressed stones for the temple. you must add more to these: This pushes the hyperbole to the absurd. As I stated at v. 4, this clause may be an attempt to harmonize David's provision of cedar with Solomon's subsequent acquisition of cedar from Huram (2 Chr 7:7-15 [8-16V/ 1 Kgs 5:20-25 [6-11]). Verse 14li ts metals followed by lumber and stone, whereas vv. 15-16 chiastically list craftsmen with stone and lumber followed by metalworkers. • 15-16 With you is an abundance ofworkers: stonecutters, masons, carpenters: The Chronicler has added "masons and carpenters" to the stonecutters mentioned in v. 2. Perhaps the Chronicler calculated that they were needed for temple construction just as they were needed for temple repair in the days ofjoash (2 Chr 24:12//2 Kgs 12:11-12) and josiah (2 Chr 34:11//2 Kgs 22:6). In vv. 15-16 he notes that the workers were in "abundance" and "without number." In the previous verse bronze and iron were listed "beyond weighing" and in "abundance." skilled: Literally "wise." This adjective is used for the workers on both the tabernacle (Exod 28:3; 31:6; 35:10; 36:1, 2, 4, 8) and the temple (2 Chr 2:6, 12, 13). Rise and get to work, and may Yahweh be with you: These two clauses correspond to parts two and three of the installation form (description of the task and accompaniment formula). Chronologically this admonition to Solomon is premature since David has not yet died, but the intention is surely to encourage him to act quickly once he has become king.61 The Chronicler may simply be followingjosh 1:2, where Yahweh tells joshua to proceed to cross the jordan, that is, get to work on the assignment given to him. ilfv.ill ("Get to work") is usually not used without a direct object, but the same usage appears in 1 Chr 28:10, 20. 56 Braun, 220-21, "by my hard work"; Rudolph, 152, gold from Ophir (2 Chr 8:18//1 Kgs 9:28 [LXX: "durch meine muhevolle Arbeit." one hundred twemy]). 57 Mason, Preaching the Tradition, 19-20. "It may refer 60 See also the discussion of large numbers in Chronito the difficulties David had experienced in gather- des under Structure at I Chronicles 12. ing all these resources when engaged in so many bat- 61 In the reign of Hezekiah the service of the temple ties." was restored in the first sixteen days of his first 58 According to 1 Chr 29:7 the leaders contibuted five month (2 Chr 29: 17). thousand talents and ten thousand darics of gold. 59 Solomon brought four hundred twenty talents of 440 22:17-19. David's Preliminary Exhortation to the Leaders of Israel • 17 David commanded all the leaders ofIsrael to assist Solomon: In these last three verses David urges the leaders to provide general support for Solomon and for his building of the temple, whereas in 29:5-9 David requests the assembly only to give financial support, and the people respond generously to this request. The order of these requests is logical in my judgment and does not provide a reason for declaring vv. 17-19 secondary. Allen, 431, proposes that this is a kind of private lobbying before David makes his public address to the leaders in 28:1-8. • 18 "Is not Yahweh your God with you": The Chronicler continues to use elements from the installation form (formula of accompaniment), even though David's address to the leaders ("you" in Hebrew is plural) deals with their responsibilities and not the installation of Solomon. "has he not given you rest on every side? For he has delivered into my hand the inhabitants of the land": The Chronicler seems to introduce a slight inconsistency into his narrative, since elsewhere he does not report the achievement of "rest" in the time of David. Even here the recipient of rest is the people, not David. These sentences return to a positive evaluation of David's wars. They also provide the theological rationale that will enable David in the next verse to urge the people to rise and build. The "inhabitants of the land," here and in two other references in Chronicles (1 Chr 11:4; 2 Chr 20:7), refer to the pre-Israelite population in Palestine. "the land has been subdued before Yahweh and before his people": Japhet, 402-3, points out that Chronicles does not report the conquest of the land in the days ofjoshua and in accordance with the promises of the Pentateuch (Deut 12:10;Josh 21:44), but it presupposes that the Israelites had multiplied in the land from the time of Jacob onward. Many of the expressions in this verse, such as "the land being subdued" (Num 32:22;Josh 18:1) or the "inhabitants of the land" (Exod 23:31), are known in the earlier sources from which the Chronicler mined his terminology, but the completion of the con22 :1-19 quest of the land is dated by him to the time of David. The clause "the land was subdued before Yahweh" is cited from Num 32:22, where "before Yahweh" is mentioned in the context of vv. 20-22 four times. The Chronicler 's addition of "before his people" harmonizes this passage with Num 32:29 ("the land shall be subdued before you") and Josh 18:1 ("The land lay subdued before them" [= the whole congregation of the Israelites]). • 19 "Now set your heart and your spirit to seek Yahweh your God. Rise up and build the sanctuary of Yahweh God": This unique exhortation introduces three specific tasks: seeking Yahweh (1 Chr 10:13-14; 13:1-3), building the temple , and bringing the ark of the covenant and the holy vessels to the new sanctuary. The way to seek Yahweh is to build the temple and carry out its rites. The term ilhpD ("sanctuary") as a designation for the temple is used only here and in 28:10 in 1 Chronicles. There are five more uses of the noun in this sense in 2 Chronicles .62 "in order to bring the ark ofthe covenant of Yahweh": David had already brought the ark from Kiriathjearim to the tent in Jerusalem (1 Chronicles 13-16), and later notes that he had planned to build a house of rest for it (28:2).63 At the dedication of the temple Solomon prayed for Yahweh and his ark to rise and go to their place of rest in the temple (2 Chr 6:41-42, verses from Ps 132:8-10 that were added by the Chronicler to the Deuteronomistic prayer from 1 Kings 8). David's command to bring the ark into the temple was carried out in 2 Chr 5:2-10//1 Kgs 8:1-9. Solomon's manufacture of the bronze sea, the pillars, and the bronze vessels was also anticipated in the David narrative (1 Chr 18:8). All these connections help to put David and Solomon on the same level as equally responsible for the building of the temple. "and the holy vessels of God": This refers to the holy vessels housed in the tent, which Solomon brought up to the temple (2 Chr 5:5//1 Kgs 8:4). In the next part of his farewell speeches, David also orders the manufacture of additional new vessels (1 Chr 28:13). 62 2 Chr 20:8; 26:18; 29:21; 30:8; 36:17. None of these 63 Cf. also 1 Chr 17:1. references is found in the Vorlage of the Deuteronomistic History. In Deuteronomy-2 Kings the word appears only in josh 24:26. 441 Conclusion This chapter contains the first two of David's farewell addresses and an account of his lavish gifts of material and workers for the building of the temple. In a private speech to Solomon, modeled after the transition from Moses to Joshua, David encourages Solomon, assigns him the tasks of building the temple and keeping the law of Yahweh, and promises that Yahweh will be with him. David himself had been prevented from building the temple because of his wars and especially because of his shedding of blood, which I take as an allusion to the seventy thousand who died in the previous chapter because of David's unfortunate census. David links the dynastic promise explicitly to Solomon and contrasts his son to himself as a person of rest and a person whose name 442 connotes an era of peace and quietness. Solomon is made equal to David. In an initial speech to the leaders, David urges support for Solomon and the temple and indicates that rest has now been achieved for the people. The leaders are to seek the Lord, build the temple, and bring the ark into it. The legitimacy and authority of the temple in Jerusalem are here traced to the two kings of the united monarchy. David gets the materials and workers together for the construction and recognizes Solomon, the actual temple builder, as his equal and fully endorsed successor. With Solomon comes rest, which is the prerequisite for building the temple. Solomon's name is his destiny: he is a person of shalom, of peace. ...


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