10

From: 1 Chronicles

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10 1/ 4/ 5/ 8/ 11/ 13/ Translation When the Philistines fought1 against Israel, every person of Israel fled before the Philistines and they fell slain2 on Mount Gilboa.3 2/ The Philistines pursued4 closely after Saul and his sons, and the Philistines smote Jonathan and Abinadab and Malchishua , the sons of Saul. 3/ The battle went badly for Saul and the archers5 found him with [their] bows; he was in severe pain6 from the archers.7 Saul said to his weapon carrier, "Draw your sword and thrust me through with it lest these uncircumcised come and mock me." But his weapon carrier refused, for he was very afraid. Then Saul took his sword and fell on it. When the weapon carrier saw that Saul had died, he also fell on his sword8 and died.9 6/ Saul died and his three sons;10 his whole household together died. 7I After every person of Israel who was in the valley saw that they11 had fled and that Saul and his sons were dead, they abandoned their12 cities and fled. So the Philistines came and lived in them.13 On the next day the Philistines came to plunder the slain, and they found Saul and his sons14 fallen on Mount Gilboa. 9/ They stripped him15 and took his head and his weapons and sent messengers16 around in t he land of the Philistines to spread the good news to their idols17 and the people. 10/ They put his armor in the temple of their gods and his skull they affixed to18 the temple of Dagon. All the inhabitants of19 Jabesh-gilead heard what the Philistines had done to Saul.20 12/ All the men of war rose and took the corpse of Saul and the corpse of his sons, and they brought them21 to Jabesh. They buried their bones under the terebinth22 at Jabesh, and they fasted seven days. Saul died because of his unfaithfulness whereby he acted unfaithfully against Yahweh, in that he did not keep the word of Yahweh, and also by consulting a medium.23 14/ He did not seek Yahweh, and so he [Yahweh] killed him and transferred the kingdom to David the son of Jesse. 282 10:1-14 Death of Saul 1Dn?l niphal perfect; 1 Sam 31:1 MT D'Dil'?l niphal participle "were fighting." The imperfect tense in Samuel LXX could represent either reading. Peter R. Ackroyd, "The Chronicler as Exegete,"] SOT 2 (1977) 26, n. 13, regards the perfect/ participle interchange as a mere scribal variant, but see the commentary. In readings discussed below in textual notes 12, 17, and 21 (cf. n. 14), Chronicles presupposes a text of Samuel other than MT. 2 o·??n. This might also be translated "wounded." See HALOT 1:320. 3 llJ?J lilJ; 1 Sam 31:1llJ'?Ji1 lilJ. S. Noah Lee, "The Use of the Definite Article in the Development of Some Biblical Toponyms," VT 52 (2002) 337-39, attributes the loss of the definite anicle on "Gilboa" to the u·ansition from Standard Biblical Hebrew to Late Biblical Heb1·ew. 4 1p::r1:1. Rudolph, 93 (cf. G. Bergstrasser, Hebriiische Grammatik [2 vols.; Leipzig: Hinrichs, 1918-1929] 2:10411 ), identifies this as a mixed form: qal and hiphil. Cf. HALOT 1:209. 5 0'11 Di1; cf. the last word in the verse (n. 6). 6 ?o;J, qal imperfect with wiiw consecutive from ?·n (BOB, 297); or ?v:J niphal or il';.>Q;l hophal "he was wounded," from il?n (NRSV; HALOT 1:310; Rudolph, 92; cf. Chmnicles LXX and 2 Kgs 1:2). 7 0'11'il]D; cf. n. 4. 1 Sam 31:3 0'11Di1D. 8 1Jin, with Chronicles LXX and l Sam 31:5; Chronicles MT Jlnil "the sword." The wiiw suffix may have been lost by haplography, precipitating the addition of the definite article in Chronicles MT. 9 nD'1; missing in Chronicles LXX because of haplography with the following identical word. 10 LXX adds "on that day"(= ~1ili1 01'J ), as in 1 Sam 31:6. 11 The Chronicler did not explicitly identify the subject , but "every person of Israel" is implied from v. l (Rudolph, 92). Chronicles LXX adds "Israel" and Chronicles LXXtl "all Israel." 1 Sam 31:7 ?~llil' 'iZil~ "the men of Israel." 12 Oil'Ill; cf. 1 Sam 31:7 LXX. Sanmel MT D'lllil r,~ "the cities." 13 DilJ . The pronominal suffix in MT is masculine whereas the antecedent...