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Abbreviations AS Aritake Shûji, Shòwa Òkurashò gaishi JWC Japan Weekly Chronicle NM Nonaka Moritaka, Teijin o sabaku OT Òshima Tarò, Teijin jiken: Shòkanshû o mamotta ishoku no hanketsu Introduction 1. Andò Yoshio, Shòwa keizai shi e no shògen 2:8. 2. Murobushi Tetsurò, Jitsuroku Nihon oshoku shi, 224. 3. Yayama Tarò, “The Recruit Scandal,” 93. 4. Senshû daigaku Imamura hòritsu kenkyû shitsu, ed., Teijin jiken, 4. 5. Hasegawa Masayasu, Shòwa kenpò shi, 78; Itò Takashi, Shòwa shi o saguru, 143. 6. Imamura Rikisaburò, Teijin jiken benron, 10. 7. Richard Mitchell, Thought Control in Prewar Japan, 188–189. 8. Stanley Payne, A History of Fascism, 1914–1945, 336. 9. Ben-Ami Shillony, Politics and Culture in Wartime Japan, 177. 10. Elise Tipton, Japanese Police State, 142. Chapter 1: Criminal Justice System 1. Mitchell, Janus-Faced Justice, 1. 2. Dan Henderson, Conciliation and Japanese Law, 1:44–45, 50, 54, 56–57. 3. Ibid., 59, 61. 4. Ibid., 67. 5. Henderson, “Law and Political Modernization in Japan,” 410 n. 44. 6. Tsuji Tatsuya, “Politics in the Eighteenth Century,” 446–447. Notes 213 7. Ibid., 448. 8. Michiko Aoki and Margaret Dardess, comps. and eds., As the Japanese See It, 263–274, contains a translation of six Judge Òoka tales. 9. Irwin Scheiner, “Benevolent Lords and Honorable Peasants,” 44. 10. Ibid., 47. 11. Ibid., 46. 12. Ibid. 13. Anne Walthall, Social Protest and Popular Culture in Eighteenth-Century Japan, 91. 14. Walthall, “Narratives of Peasant Uprisings in Japan,” 576–577; Walthall, “Japanese Gimin,” 1076, 1083–1084; also see Aoki and Dardess, As the Japanese See It, 275–282. 15. Conrad Totman, Early Modern Japan, 515–518; Richard Rubinger, Private Academies of Tokugawa Japan, 188–189; Tetsuo Najita, “Òshio Heihachirò,” 174. 16. Ibid., 178. 17. Michael Lewis, Rioters and Citizens, 252. 18. Quoted in James White, Ikki, 47. 19. Herman Ooms, Tokugawa Village Practice, 348. 20. Mitchell, Janus-Faced Justice, 4–5. 21. Hiramatsu Yoshirò, “Summary of Tokugawa Criminal Justice,” 121. 22. Ibid., 121–122. 23. Mitchell, Janus-Faced Justice, 10–13. 24. Ishii Ryòsuke, ed., Japanese Legislation in the Meiji Era, 275, 277–278, 286–287. 25. Ibid., 286. 26. Ibid., 288; Henderson, Conciliation and Japanese Law, 2:189. 27. Mitchell, Janus-Faced Justice, 12–13. 28. Ibid., 13. 29. Hugh Borton, Japan’s Modern Century, 582. 30. John Haley, Authority without Power, 80. 31. Tanaka Hideo, ed., The Japanese Legal System, 626–627; Ishii, Japanese Legislation, 488–489. 32. Tanaka, 627. 33. Ishii, Japanese Legislation, 489 (italics in original). 34. Mitchell, Thought Control in Prewar Japan, 35. 35. See Mitchell, Censorship in Imperial Japan, and Mitchell, Janus-Faced Justice. 36. J. Ramseyer and Frances Rosenbluth, The Politics of Oligarchy, 87. Ramseyer and Rosenbluth distort my view on pre-1945 judicial independence. These scholarsstatethat“JohnHaley(1991:80)leanstowardcompleteindependence Notes to Pages 7–11 214 in the pre-World War II years. . . . So does Mitchell (1992)” (p. 184 n. 1). I do no such thing! I do say about court decisions I cover in Janus-Faced Justice that judges often did not go along with what procurators wanted: they sometimes dropped charges, reduced sentences, and freed leftist political criminal suspects. I point out, however, that judges’ decisions were influenced by the trend of the times, especially in trials involving rightists. For example, I write on page 151: “There was an erosion of judicial independence during the period between 1933 and 1945, especially in connection with trials involving rightists who claimed to kill in defense of the kokutai.” 37. Ishii, Japanese Legislation, 291–292. 38. “Kanketsu ni atatte (zadankai),” 589. 39. Ishii, Japanese Legislation, 291–292. 40. Mitchell, Thought Control in Prewar Japan, 35–36. 41. Mitchell, Political Bribery in Japan, 37. 42. B. J. George, “The Impact of the Past upon the Rights of the Accused in Japan,” 63. 43. Mitchell, Janus-Faced Justice, 71. 44. Tanaka, Japanese Legal System, 550–551. 45. Mitchell, Janus-Faced Justice, 159. 46. Abe Haruo, “Criminal Justice in Japan,” 558. 47. Tanaka, Japanese Legal System, 637 (italics in original). 48. Robert Epp, “The Challenge from Tradition,” 20–21. 49. Ibid., 26. 50. Ibid., 25–26; Ishida Takeshi, “The Introduction of Western Political Concepts into Japan,” 12–13. 51. Quoted in Mukai Ken and Toshitani Nobuyoshi, “The Progress and Problems of Compiling the Civil Code in the Early Meiji Era,” 38 n. 23. 52. Ishii, Japanese Legislation, 398. 53. Ukai Nobushige, “The Individual and the Rule of Law under the...


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Subject Headings

  • Teijin case, 1934.
  • Trials (Bribery) -- Japan -- Tokyo -- History -- 20th century.
  • Political corruption -- Japan -- History -- 20th century.
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