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Notes Introduction 1. Cited in Thomas Bender, Toward an Urban Vision: Ideas and Institutions in Nineteenth-Century America (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1975), 4. 2. See Christine Haynes, ‘‘The Coupling and Decoupling of Urbs and Civitas ,’’ Journal of Urban History 33 (January 2007): 298, on the evolution of the term ‘‘civitas.’’ 3. Lewis Mumford, The Culture of Cities (New York: Harcourt Brace, 1938), 3. 4. See my review essay, ‘‘Urban Renewal Revisited,’’ Journal of Urban History 33 (January 2007): 343. 5. See Eric Mumford, The CIAM Discourse on Urbanism, 1928–1960 (Cambridge , Mass.: MIT Press, 2000), especially 269, noting the association of Le Corbusier ’s brand of modernism with ‘‘anti-urbanism’’ and symbolized by the destruction of the Pruitt-Igoe housing project in St. Louis described in Chapter 8; Emily Talen, New Urbanism and American Planning: The Conflict of Cultures (New York: Routledge , 2005), 49–58. 6. See my essay ‘‘Towards Effective Environmental Intervention in Cities: Roy Lubove’s Evolving Critique of Urban Planning,’’ Pennsylvania History 68 (Summer 2001): 325–35. 7. For a summary of these trends, see Jason Hackworth, The Neoliberal City: Governance, Ideology, and Development in American Urbanism (Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 2007). 8. Such hopes are generally stated by New York Times architectural critic Nicolai Ouroussoff’s reflections on the possible effect on cities of the new president’s stimulus package (‘‘Reinventing America’s Cities: The Time Is Now,’’ March 29, 2009), and more explicitly by advocacy organizations. See, for instance, the report of the Oakland, California, PolicyLink, and the St. Louis-based Transportation Equity Network report, ‘‘An Engine of Opportunity: Achievable Goals to Advocate for Transportation Equity,’’ issued electronically April 1, 2009. 9. Howard Gillette, Jr., Camden After the Fall: Decline and Renewal in a PostIndustrial City (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2005), 247. For a summary of environmental traditions in urban and regional planning and their relationship to issues of social equity, see Thomas L. Daniels, ‘‘A Trail Across Time: American Environmental Planning from City Beautiful to Sustainability,’’ Journal of the American Planning Association 75 (Spring 2009): 178–92. PAGE 169 ................. 17669$ NOTE 02-23-10 13:51:33 PS 170 Notes to Pages 5–8 Chapter 1. Progressive Reform Through Environmental Intervention 1. Roy Lubove, The Progressives and the Slums: Tenement House Reform in New York City, 1890–1917 (Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, 1962), 187, provided an early and enduring definition of Progressives: ‘‘The right of every individual to the normal life, to those material and cultural necessities without which he could not function as a healthy, productive member of society, was a goal which linked together the disparate reform crusades of the Progressive era.’’ 2. Charles Mulford Robinson, Modern Civic Art, or the City Made Beautiful, 2nd ed. (New York: Putnam’s Sons, 1904), 257–58. 3. Bonnie Yochelson and Daniel Czitrom, Rediscovering Jacob Riis: Exposure Journalism and Photography in Turn-of-Century New York (New York: New Press, 2007), 37–68. 4. Quoted in Howard Gillette, Jr., Between Justice and Beauty: Race, Planning, and the Failure of Urban Policy in Washington, D.C. (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1995; reprint Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2006), 116–17. 5. Lubove, Progressives and the Slums, 125. For one example of how Riis drew inspiration from Roosevelt’s example, see Howard Gillette, Jr., ‘‘The Military Occupation of Cuba, 1899–1902: Workshop for American Progressivism,’’ American Quarterly (October 1973): 408–25. This essay does not take up environmental intervention as such, but it does argue that government interventions in Cuban cities and society were highly influential on the Progressive movement that followed. 6. Richard E. Fogleson, Planning the Capitalist City: The Colonial Era to the 1920s (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1986), 74, 77. 7. M. Christine Boyer, Dreaming the Rational City: The Myth of American City Planning (Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1983), 16–18. 8. Alice N. Lincoln, ‘‘Improved Dwellings,’’ Charities Review 4 (June 1895), 433, quoted in ibid., 15. 9. Yochelson and Czitrom, Rediscovering Jacob Riis, 39. ‘‘Unsafest of all is any thing or deed that strikes at the home, for from the people’s home proceeds citizen virtue, and nowhere else does it live,’’ Riis wrote in 1902. ‘‘The slum is the enemy of the home. Because of it the chief city of our land came long ago to be called ‘The Homeless City.’ When this people comes to be truly called a nation without homes there will no longer be any nation.’’ Riis, The Battle...


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