In lieu of an abstract, here is a brief excerpt of the content:

173 notes introduction Denis Diderot, Jacques the Fatalist and His Master (London: Penguin, 1986), 98. 1. Karl Marx, Capital Volume 1, in Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels, Collected Works, vol. 35 (London: Lawrence & Wishart, 1987), 186. 2. For an analysis of this logic, see Mladen Dolar, “Officers, Maids, and Chimney Sweepers,” unpublished manuscript, 2014; Slavoj Žižek, “The Role of Chimney Sweepers in Sexual Identity,” International Journal of Žižek Studies7, no. 2 (2013): 1–9. 3. Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels, The Communist Manifesto (London: Pluto, 2008), 56. 4. For a detailed discussion of the intricacies and deadlocks involved in the freedom of choice, see Renata Salecl, The Tyranny of Choice (London: Profile, 2011). 5. Frank Ruda, “How to Act As If One Were Not Free? A Contemporary Defense of Fatalism,” Crisis and Critique 1, no. 3 (2014): 175–99. 6. Leszek Kolakowski, God Owes Us Nothing: A Brief Remark on Pascal’s Religion and on the Spirit of Jansenism (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1998), 190; Alain Badiou, Metapolitics (London: Verso, 2012). 7. Glaucon at one point of the debate on the “luxurious city” states that it will be “a city of pigs.” Plato, Republic (Cambridge ma: Hackett, 2004), 51. 8. Gilles Châtelet, To Live and Think Like Pigs: The Incitement of Envy and Boredom in Market Democracies, (Falmouth, UK: Sequence, 2014). 174 · Notes to pages 4–12 9. A detailed reconstruction of Buridan’s ass can be found in Nicolas Rescher, Scholastic Meditations (Washington dc: Catholic University of America Press, 2005), 1–48. See also Justin Clemens, “Spinoza’s Ass,” in Spinoza Now, ed. Dimitris Vardoulakis (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2011), 65–98. 10. Marquis de Sade, Florville and Courval, or Fatality, in The Crimes of Love: Heroic and Tragic Tales (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2005), 98–142. 11. I borrow this term from Stanley Cavell, Pursuits of Happiness: The Hollywood Comedies of Remarriage (Cambridge ma: Harvard University Press, 1984). 12. Pierre Klossowski, “A Destructive Philosophy,” Yale French Studies 35 (1965): 61–80. 13. Rebecca Comay, “Adorno avec Sade,” differences 17, no. 1 (2006): 15. 14. Comay, “Adorno avec Sade,” 17. 15. Kolakowski, God Owes Us Nothing, 76. 16. Slavoj Žižek, “Only a Suffering God Can Save Us,” in Slavoj Žižek and Boris Gunjevic, God in Pain: Inversions of the Apocalypse (New York: Seven Stories, 2012), 162. 17. Klossowski, “A Destructive Philosophy,” 69. 18. Sophocles, The Oedipus Coloneus, in Sophocles: The Plays and Fragments (Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2010), 193. 19. Kathy Acker, “Reading the Lack of the Body: The Writing of Marquis de Sade,” in Must We Burn Sade?, ed. Deepak Narang Sawhney (New York: Humanity, 1999), 241. 20. Jean-Pierre Dupuy, Pour une catastrophisme éclairé: Quand l’imposible est certain (Paris: Seuil, 2002); Jean-Pierre Dupuy, Economy and Faith: A Crisis of Faith (East Lansing: Michigan State University Press, 2014). 21. Žižek, “Only a Suffering God Can Save Us,” 162. 22. Michel Foucault, “Lives of Infamous Men,” in Essential Works of Foucault, 1954–1984, vol. 3 (New York: New Press, 2001), 157–75. 23. G. W. F. Hegel, The Science of Logic (New York: Humanity, 1969), 836. See also Slavoj Žižek, The Ticklish Subject: The Absent Center of Political Ontology (New York: Verso, 2000), 79. 24. Hegel, Science of Logic, 836. Notes to pages 12–20 · 175 25. G. W. F. Hegel, Phenomenology of Spirit, trans. A. V. Miller (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1977), 37. 26. Hegel, Phenomenology of Spirit, 37. 27. René Descartes, Discourse on Method, in The Philosophical Writings of Descartes, vol. 1 (Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1985), 122. 28. Alain Badiou, “Le courage du present,” Le Monde, February 13, 2010, -present-par-alain-badiou_1305322_3232.html. 1. protestant fatalism Denis Diderot, Jacques the Fatalist and His Master (London: Penguin, 1986), 56; Jean-Paul Sartre, The Words (New York: Braziller, 1981), 250; Every Time I Die, “Decaying with the Boys.” 1. Richard Marius, Martin Luther: The Christian between God and Death (Cambridge ma: Harvard University Press, 2000), 467. The present chapter owes a lot to one of the most impressive contemporary readers of the Reformation tradition: Felix Ensslin. 2. Ernstpeter Maurer, Luther (Freiburg: Herder, 1999), 49. 3. For this, see: Alain Badiou, Saint Paul: The Foundation of Universalism (Stanford: Stanford University Press 2003). 4. Maurer, Luther, 49. 5. Martin Luther, Disputation against Scholastic Theology, in Luther’s Work, vol. 31: Career of the Reformer...