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A P P E N D I X S I X 393 Fifty Journalists: Biographical Sketches Akiyama Teisuke (1868–1950, Okayama). A graduate of Tokyo Imperial University, he founded Niroku Shinpò in October 1893, suspended it in 1895 for financial reasons, then revived it in 1900. He resigned as president in 1911 but kept control until its demise in 1940. Asahina Chisen (1862–1939, Ibaraki). He was founding editor of the Chòshû organ Tòkyò Shinpò in 1888, then closed that paper down and assumed the presidency of Tòkyò Nichi Nichi Shimbun in 1892. After resigning in 1904, he maintained close ties to Yamato Shimbun. Black, John Reddie (1827–1880, Scotland). A trader, he became editor of A. W. Hansard’s Japan Herald in 1862, began his own Japan Gazette in 1867, then launched the Japanese-language Nisshin Shinjishi in 1872. Forced out of journalism by the 1875 newspaper law, which prevented foreigners from editing vernacular papers, he spent his last years writing the two-volume Young Japan. Fujita Mokichi (1852–1892, Òita). After studying at Keiò Gijuku, he entered Yûbin Hòchi in 1874, where, as chief editor, he supported the progressive Kaishintò. He was jailed for his attacks on the government in 1875 and was elected to the Diet in 1890 and 1892. Fukuchi Gen’ichirò (1841–1906, Nagasaki). He was jailed in 1868 for attacks on the Meiji government at Kòko Shimbun, then became the country’s most influential editor at the pro-Chòshû Tòkyò Nichi Nichi Shimbun in 1874. After retiring in 1888, he became a novelist and kabuki writer. In his latter years, he wrote for Yamato Shimbun and was elected to the Diet in 1904. 394 Appendix 6 Fukuzawa Sutejirò (1865–1926, Tokyo). He studied at Keiò Gijuku and Boston University, entered Jiji Shinpò in 1981, and assumed the paper’s presidency from his father, Yukichi, in 1896. Known for promotional schemes and an emphasis on economic news, he launched the Òsaka Jiji Shinpò in 1905; it never became a strong paper, however . Fukuzawa Yukichi (1834–1901, Fukuoka). A leading modernizer, he was an important voice on the Meiroku Zasshi in the 1870s and launched Jiji Shinpò in 1882. The paper specialized in financial reporting and advocated moderately progressive domestic policies and a strong foreign policy. Hani Motoko (1873–1957, Aomori). She entered Hòchi Shimbun in 1898 as a copy editor, then moved to the news side as Japan’s first full-fledged woman reporter. Forced to leave Hòchi in 1901 for marrying fellow employee Hani Yoshikazu, she later founded Fujin no Tomo magazine and the Jiyû Gakuren school. Hara Kei (Takashi; 1856–1921, Iwate). He became a Yûbin Hòchi writer in 1879, then edited Daitò Nippò in 1882, before leaving to work in the Foreign Ministry. In 1897, he returned to journalism, as editor, then president (1898) of Òsaka Mainichi. He left Mainichi for politics in 1900, as leader of the Seiyûkai. As Home Minister (1906–1908, 1911–1912, 1912–1914), he often oppressed the press. He helped manage two pro-Seiyûkai papers, Òsaka Shinpò and Chûò Shimbun, in the early 1900s and was prime minister from 1918 until his assassination. Heco, Joseph (Hamada Hikozò) (1837–1897, Hyògò). Shipwrecked in 1850, he was taken to America, then returned to Japan in 1859 as an interpreter. He launched the first Japanese-language paper, Kaigai Shimbun (first called Shimbunshi) with Kishida Ginkò in 1864; it lasted only a year. He worked for a time in the Finance Ministry, then went into business. Hiratsuka Raichò (1886–1971, Tokyo). In 1911, she founded Seitò (Blue Stocking), the first journal produced entirely by women. After leaving its editorship in 1915, she gave her life to women’s and peace issues. Fifty Journalists 395 Ikebe Kichitarò (Sanzan; 1864–1912, Kumamoto). He became a writer at Nihon in 1890, then after a stint in Paris moved to Òsaka Asahi in 1896. He became chief editor of Tòkyò Asahi in 1897, where he was known for advocating strong foreign policies. Inukai Tsuyoshi (Ki; 1855–1932, Okayama). He wrote for Yûbin Hòchi from 1875 onward, then left the paper over differences with Fujita Mokichi, and in 1880 helped found the Tòkai Keizai Shinpò. He worked again at Yûbin Hòchi from 1882 to 1885, when he left to head Chòya Shimbun. He left there in 1890, founded the journal Minpò in 1891, then...


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