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Acknowledgments A first book for any author accumulates many debts. Regrettably, I can only recognize a small portion of all the people who helped me over many years. First and foremost, special thanks go to my parents, Dotty and Tim Childs, who raised me with the important values of hard work and respect for humanity. My only regret is that my mom did not see the publication of my second book. My second probation o≈cer, Steve Doaks, deserves special recognition for stressing (unlike my first probation o≈cer) that I did have some potential and for encouraging me to go to college. Aline Helg guided and nurtured this study at the University of Texas. The greatest pleasure in working with Aline was the respect and confidence she expressed in my work, all the while, however, encouraging a level of scholarly rigor, thoroughness, and familiarity with the sources. Numerous faculty members at UT shaped my formation as a historian during my graduate studies. In particular, I would like to recognize Dave Bowman, Bob Olwell, Jim Sidbury, Toyin Falola, Sandra Lauderdale-Graham, Richard Graham, Jonathan Brown, Mauricio Tenorio, and Sonia LabradorRodr íguez. Equally important to completing my studies were the solidarity and fellowship with graduate students Marc McLeod, Joanna Swanger, JohnMarshall Klein, Michele Reid, Alexandra Brown, Hal Langfur, Mike Snodgrass , Sean Kelley, Michele McAtee, Kevin Roberts, Jason Lowery, Saheed Adejumobi, Joel Tishken, Dan Haworth, Russ Lohse, Patrick Timmons, Robert Smale, and Ken Aslakson. I would also like to thank scholars who shaped this study through interactions at conferences, archives, and e-mail correspondence: João José Reis, Paul Lovejoy, David Eltis, Jane Landers, Rosemary Brana-Shute, Laurent Dubois, Ada Ferrer, David Brion Davis, Seymour Drescher, Mary Karasch, x Acknowledgments Stuart Schwartz, Frank Guridy, Jay Kinsbruner, Luz Meña, Ben Vinson, Robert Slenes, Mariana Dantas, Robert Paquette, David Geggus, Philip Howard , Susan Socolow, Ann Twinam, James Sweet, Kirk Sha√er, and Louis A. Pérez Jr. I would like to thank my colleagues at Florida State University who read drafts of chapters: Maxine Jones, Joe Richardson, Max Friedman, Michael Creswell, Ed Gray, Albrecht Koschnik, Darrin McMahon, Elna Green, Rod Anderson, Robinson Herrera, Pete Ripley, and Sally Hadden. Dick Greaves and especially Neil Jumonville as department chairs fostered both this book and my development as a young scholar and teacher. A particular thanks goes to my patron, Rod Anderson, for making that fateful decision of hiring me. I will continue to o√er libations in compensation for the many headaches and sleepless nights, but I am still waiting on my meal at Chez Pierre. Robinson Herrera deserves special recognition for our joint e√orts to expand the Latin American history program at FSU. For two years Joan Casanovas was an ideal colleague and fellow Caribbeanist before his patria called him back home. Dozens of graduate students at FSU helped me shape this study through working with them in reading seminars and serving on their M.A. and Ph.D. committees. In particular, I need to recognize Andrea Vicente, Matt Harrington , and Lindsey Clark, who read chapter 1. A big thanks goes to Sarah Franklin, who read and re-read the entire manuscript, o√ered keen suggestions for revising the book, and tutored me in SPSS while supported as a research assistant by the History Department. This study could not have been completed without the generous financial support of several agencies and foundations. The Lydia Cabrera Award given by the Conference on Latin American History and the Graduate Award o√ered by the Southwest Council of Latin American Studies funded my four months of research in Spanish archives. A group project with John-Marshall Klein, Marc McLeod, and Joanna Swanger funded by the Ford Foundation’s program in Social Science Concepts in Area Studies and an award from the Johns Hopkins University/Ford Foundation Latin American Studies Cuba Research Grant allowed me to begin my initial research in Cuban archives. The generous yearlong support of the Fulbright-Hays Committee and the Social Science Research Council/American Council for Learned Societies International Dissertation Field Research Fellowship provided the financial resources to work in Cuba. The University of Florida Libraries provided a summer research grant to work in their excellent collections. The History Department at Florida State University allowed me to teach an overload for four semesters to bank courses to free up two semesters for preparing the manuscript. Working with historians, institutions, libraries, archives, and compañeros in Acknowledgments xi Cuba fundamentally shaped my...