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dependence, and combined measures of other drug abuse/dependence that includes inhalants, cocaine, hallucinogens, heroin, sedatives, tranquilizers, stimulants, and analgesics. For the estimation of DSM-IV diagnoses, the instrument used was the Michigan Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI), which has been employed as part of the National Comorbidity Study (Kessler et al. 1994). Evidence for the validity of the Michigan CIDI diagnostic estimates have been reported for most DSM disorders, including the addictive disorders utilized in this chapter (Nelson et al. 1996; Warner et al. 1995). In addition to the measures of substance use and DSM-IV substance disorders , a composite variable indicating combined substance use was created. This measure indicates mutually exclusive categories of abstinence, use of alcohol only, marijuana only, other drugs other than alcohol and marijuana only, alcohol and marijuana only, alcohol and other drug except marijuana, marijuana and other drug except alcohol, and the combination of alcohol, marijuana, and at least one other drug. Structural Factors Structural factors were obtained from four sources: 1990 U.S. Census data, official school records, self-reports from the youth, and parent interviews. U.S. Census data from 1990 was used because it coincides from the first wave of the longitudinal data, when participants started middle school (mean age  11.07 years). Two measures of poverty were used: overall neighborhood poverty and proportion of families in poverty. From the school records, grade point average (GPA) and scores on conduct for early and mid-adolescence were used, as well as a measure of high school dropout by the end of high school. Family Economic Factors These measures derive from parent and youth interviews. The measures derived from the parent interviews include family economic hardship, level of education of each parent and of the primary caretaker, family structure, and presence of the father at different developmental periods. From the youth interviews there are two measures: bonding with the mother and bonding with the father. References Alegría, M., N. Mulvaney-Day, M. Torres, A. Polo, Z. Cao, and G. Canino. 2007. Prevalence of psychiatric disorders across Latino subgroups in the United States. American Journal of Public Health 97: 68–75. Amaro, H., and M. Y. Iguchi. 2006. Scientific opportunities in Hispanic drug abuse research. Drug and Alcohol Dependence Special Issue, supp. 1, vol. 84: S1–S3. Alcohol, Tobacco, and Other Drugs 119 Carroll, S. J., C. Krop, J. Arkes, P. A. Morrison, and A. Flanagan. 2005. California’s K–12 public schools: How are they doing? Santa Monica: Rand Corp. Darling-Hammond, L. 2002. Access to quality teaching: An analysis of inequality in California’s public schools. Document wws-rr002–1002. Los Angeles: UCLA’s Institute for Democracy, Education, and Access. Delva, J., J. P. Wallace, P. M. O’Malley, J. G. Bachman, L. D. Johnston, and J. E. Schulenberg. 2005. The epidemiology of alcohol, marijuana, and cocaine use among Mexican American, Puerto Rican, Cuban American, and other Latin American eightgrade students in the United States: 1991–2002. American Journal of Public Health 95 (4): 696–702. Dumka, L. E., M. W. Roosa, and K. M. Jackson. 1997. Risk, conflict, mothers’ parenting, and children’s adjustment in low-income, Mexican immigrant, and Mexican American families. Journal of Marriage and the Family 59 (2): 309–323. Gil, A. G., W. A. Vega, and F. Biafora. 1997. Temporal influences of family structure and family risk factors on drug-use initiation in a multiethnic sample of adolescent boys. Journal of Youth and Adolescence 23: 373–393. Gil, A. G., W. A. Vega, and R. J. Turner. 2002. Early and mid-adolescence risk factors for later substance abuse by African Americans and European Americans. Public Health Reports 117: S15–S29. Gil, A. G., E. F. Wagner, and J. G. Tubman. 2004. Young adult consequences of early adolescent substance use: Substance use and psychiatric disorders in a multiethnic sample of males. American Journal of Public Health 94 (9): 1603–1609. Grant, B. F., F. S. Stinson, D. S. Hasin, D. A. Dawson, S. P. Chou, and K. Anderson. 2004. Immigration and lifetime prevalence of DSM-IV psychiatric disorders among Mexican Americans and non-Hispanic whites in the United States. Archives of General Psychiatry 61: 1226–1233. Johnston, L. D., P. M. O’Malley, J. G. Bachman, and J. E. Schulenberg. 2006. Monitoring the future national survey on drug use, 1975–2005. Vol. 1, Secondary school children. Publication 06–5883. Bethesda: National Institute on Drug Abuse. Kawachi, I., N. Daniels, and D. E. Robinson...


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