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A P P E N D I C E S A. Staff Assignments at Ottoman GHQ, January 1918 Vice-Generalissimo: Gen. Enver Pasa Chief of General Staff: Lt. Gen. von Seeckt* Central Department: Lt.Col. Dunst* Departments 1 (Operations) Lt.Col. von Feldmann* II (Intelligence) Lt.Col. Seifi B Lt.Col. Sievert* III (Railroads) Lt. Col. Pfann iv (Quartermaster) Maj.Gen. Bischof* v (Weapons and Munitions) Maj. Gen. Schlee* vi (Communications Zone Inspectorate) Lt. Col. Rüsdi Bey; Lt.Col. Endres,* attached vii (Medical) Maj. Gen. Siileyman Numan Pasa vin (Traffic) Col. Potschernik* ix (HQ Commandant) Lt. Col. Mahmud Bey x (Central Files) Maj. Ziya Bey xi (Coal) Maj. Niemoller* xii (Engineering and Fortresses) Maj.Gen. Langenstrass* * Indicates German officers. Their ranks are those held in the Ottoman army, customarily one higher than their German rank. SOURCE: Muhlmann, Das deutsch-turfyische Waffenbiindnis, p. 326. ' 373 ' B. Major Unit Commands in the Ottoman Army Held by German Generals During World War I Name Unit Commanded Approximate Dates Liman von Sanders First Army Aug 1914-March 1915 Fifth Army March 1915-Feb 1918 Army Group F Feb 1918-Oct 1918 von der Goltz First Army April 1915-Oct 1915 Sixth Army Oct 1915-April 1916 von Falkenhayn Army Group F June 1917-Feb 1918 Kress von Kressenstein Eighth Army Oct 1917-Dec 1917 ' 374 ' C. German-Ottoman Military Convention of October 18, 1917 (Excerpts) ART. I. UNIFORM PRINCIPLES CONCERNING PEACETIME STRENGTH AND MILITARY SERVICE OBLIGATIONS. The high contracting parties obligate themselves to use the human resources of their countries for national defense in ap­ proximately equal fashion and to regulate to that end the peacetime strength of their armies and the military service obligations according to the same principles The peacetime strength of the army shall amount to about 1% of the population. The high contracting parties obligate themselves to allocate as much as possible the funds (army budget) which are an­ nually required for the maintenance, clothing, equipment, pay­ ment, training, weaponry, medical services, etc., of the peace­ time army as well as for war preparations (procurement of war materiel stocks of all types), for fortifications, for strategic railroads, roads,etc. The military education and invigoration of the youth . . . shall be introduced and carried out in both countries according to similar principles. ART. 2. UNIFORMITY IN THE ORGANIZATION OF THE ARMY AND THE ORDER OF BATTLE. The experiences of this war have shown the necessity of hav­ ing the infantry divisions . . . in the allied armies constitute as much as possible identical types of troop units.... The high contracting parties, therefore, obligate themselves to [adopt uniform principles in the formation of divisional units] ART. 3. UNIFORMITY OF WAR MATERIEL. The replenishment of ammunition as well as the replace­ ment and mutual loaning of weapons and weapons parts make e.Appendix Q it absolutely necessary for the allied armies to have uniform armaments and munitions. The high contracting parties, therefore, obligate themselves to adopt as standard models those firearms with ammunition which have proved themselves in the war or been designed in consonance with the latest experiences of the war, [and] to procure new weaponsonly of these models [To facilitate] mutual loans of equipment, particularly of spare parts... the Ottoman army shall use as much as possible passenger cars, trucks, airplanes, etc., only of the standard types adopted by the allied armies.... [Similar uniform stand­ ards to apply to variousother types of equipment.] ART. 4· UNIFORMITY OF TRAINING. (1) The use of troops of the allied armies in joint operations . . . requires uniform training to the greatest possible extent. The high contracting parties, therefore, obligate themselves to retain or introduce ... uniform regulations... for troop train­ ing, firing practice, field exercises, and tactical leadership; and to regulate the training of general staff officers at the Great General Staff and official procedures in the higher staffs . . . according to uniform principles, so that the work of Turkish officers on German staffs and of German officers on Turkish staffs will be facilitated. (2) The German army administration will make available, upon request by the Turkish army administration, a stipulated number of selected officers for assistance in the expansion of the Ottoman army—provisionally for a period of five years. These officers will be given leave without pay by the German army administration, [they] will transfer into Turkish service and be paid by the Turkish army administration. In all matters relating to their official duties and assignments these German officers will be subordinates of the Turkish war minister and...


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