Index
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INDEX NoTE: The asterisk indicates the location of detailed identification. Abbott, Abby Hamlin (Mrs. Lyman), 293 Abbott, Lyman, 41, *43-44, 279, 308, 313; at dedication of Phelps Hall Bible School, 293; on blacks at Lake Mohonk Negro Conference, 70 Abolitionists, 23, 39-40, 42, 67, 208, 357, 484 Ada, 375 Adams, Charles Francis, 529 Adams, Eliza S., *388 Adams, Lewis, 56, 274, 276, 300, 301, 388; recommended by Warren Logan for teaching position, 19-20 Adams, Virginia L. See Driver, Virginia L. Adams Adler, Felix, 374 Advance, 220 Africa, 34, 83, 1oo, 280, 461, 496; BTW on black emigration to, 377-78; Edward W. Blyden on African emigration , 497 African Methodist Episcopal (A.M.E.) Church, 103, 113, 166, 256, 423; Baltimore Conference, g8-gg; Daniel A. Payne organizes southern work of, 97; Henry M. Turner convention, 378 African Methodist Episcopal Church, Zion, 272 Afro-American Council, 570 Afro-American League, 19, 172 Alabama acts: amendment to Tuskegee Institute act of incorporation ( 1893), 299-302; Apportionment Act ( 1891 :, 263 Alabama Baptist Leader, 198 Alabama Constitution ( 1875) : educational provisions of, 262-63 Alabama education. See Education Alabama Education Association, 159, 426 Alabama governors. See Jones, Thonas Goode (18go-g4) ; Oates, William Calvin (1894-96) ; Seay, Thomas ( 1886-go) Alabama Hall, 221, 474, 487; fire safety in, 382, 383, 386, 387 Alabama Medical Association, 165 Alabama Polytechnic Institute (Au· burn} , go, 547; graduates in farming , 313 ; rivalry with black schools over state funds, 95, gg, 123 Alabama State Board of Health, 165 Alabama State Normal School. Se~ Alabama State University for Colored Students Alabama State Teachers' Association, 227-28, 346, 352; BTW speaks before , 234-36; meeting (1892), 243 Alabama State University for Colored Students: BTW speaks at, 24-25 ; various names of, 77-78 ; vies for school funds, gg, 123 Alabama superintendents of education, 323; John G. Harris on black education , 201. See also Harris, John Gideon (1890-94); Hill, Isaac W. 593 The BooKER T. WASHINGTON Papers ( 1902-6) ; Turner, John Orman ( 1894-98) Albert, Aristide E. P., 119, "120 Alcorn, James Lusk, 358 Alcorn Agricultural and Mechanical College (Miss.), 177,357, *358, 522, 528, 530 ; BTW declines offer of presidency, 41 8-1 9; Thomas J. Calloway on presidency, 415-16 Alcott, Louisa May, 48 Alexander, John, 558-6o Alexander, Robert, 306 Alger, Cyrus, 194 <\llain, Theophile Tarence, *96-97, 15556 .\Jlain, Theophile Tarence, Jr., 96, *97 Allen, Griffin Anderson, 419, *420, 421 allen, Julia Crudine. See May, Julia Crudine Allen Allen University (S.C.) , 256, 458 lll Souls Church (Chicago), so6 AM.E. Church Review, 113, 166, 219 Anerican Anti-Slavery Society, 67, 68 Alllerican Baptist Foreign Missionary Society, 4 Ane~ican Board of Commissioners for :;'oreign Missions, 42 Arrerican Economic Association, 408 Am•rican Federation of Labor, 366 Amaican Freedmen's Union Commissic .n, 43 American Historical Association, 408 Ame1ican Historical Review, 408 American Home Economics Association, 470 American Hospital for Seamen (Honolulu ), 212 American Israelite, 412 American Missionary, 69 American Missionary Association, 43, 53, 78, 118, 279, 325,581 ; BTW evaluates, 158, 280 ; officers and members of, 43, 69, 168, 221, 296-97, 344, 529; officers visit Tuskegee Institute , 220 American Negro Academy: members of, 108,517 American Tract Society, 334, 342, 344, *348 American Unitarian Association, 51, 356, 357 Amherst College (Mass.) : alumni of, 168, 349, so6 Amorous, Martin, 461 , *462 Anderson, Charles W., 455 Anderson, W. C., 336 Anderson School, 55 Andover Theological Seminary (Mass.) , 73 ; alumni of, 42, 53 Anthony, Susan Brownell, 23 Anti-Caste, 33, *34 Anti-lynching campaign. See Lynching Anti-Semitism : BTW accused of, 412. See also Jews Apache Indians: education of, 127-28 ; prisoners at Mt. Vernon Barracks, Ala., 128, 133 Arena, 46 Armistead, John M., 11, "12 Armour, Philip Danforth, 505 Armour Institute (Chicago) , 502, 505 Armstrong, Mary Alice Ford (Mrs. Samuel Chapman) , 61, 336 Armstrong, Samuel Chapman, 34, 40, 133, 212, 277·78, 304, 332, 343, 344, 347,350,385,398,428, 439, 440, 483,522,547, 552; at Lake Mohonk Negro Conference, 6o, 61; attitudes of whites toward, 319, 320-21 ; BTW on significance of, 322-24; BTW praises, 199·201; BTW speaks at memorial service of, 31 7-21 ; endorses T . Thomas Fortune as minister to Haiti, 153-54 ; favors Hawaiian annexation , 290 ; health of, 54, 195, 201 , 290; influence on black education, 31 7-24 ; influence on Tuskegee Institute , 313, 317-21, 529; last visit to Tuskegee, 290, 291-94, 295, 303; letters from, 12-13,216, 290 ; letters to, 4, 5, 10-II , 21-22, 36-37,62-63, 6s, 126, 127, 151-52, 219-21 , 312-13; offers to help Tuskegee, 290; recognition by delegates of Tuskegee Negr~ Conference, 298 ; recommends BTW, IO-II , 174 ; second marriage of, 61; speaks at Tuskegee Negro Conference, 295, 296 Armstrong Hall, 542 "As separate as the fingers," sSe, 585; origin of phrase, 582-83. See also Atlanta Exposition address · · 594 INDEX . Ash, William H ., 330, 337-38 Ashville College. See Samford University Associa,ted Press, I 9 Association for Advancement of Women, 48 Association for Improving the Condition of the Poor, I 1 I Atlanta, Ga.: Mary A. Elliott's description of, 23 7-39 Atlanta and West Point Railroad Company , 294 Atlanta Chamber of Commerce, 43 Atlanta Compromise address. See Atlanta Exposition address Atlanta Constitution, 393, 462, 576 ; on BTW, 569 Atlanta Cotton Mills, 43 Atlanta Cotton States and International Exposition, 23, 43, 424, 5I7, 529, 543, 570 ; Alabama state exhibit, 576 ; BTW appointed commissioner of, 480-8 I ; BTW as commissioner of, 534-35 ; BTW invited to be commissioner of, 392 ; BTW lobbies before Congress for funds, 422-23 ; BTW urged to be commissioner of, 450 ; black commissioners of, 535, 577 ; black participation in openingday exercises, 568, 577 ; committee on Negro exhibit, 575 ; I. Garland Penn advises BTW on his speech at, 575-76 ; I. Garland Penn supports BTW for speaker at, 567-69; Negro Building, 392, 530, 568 ; Negro exhibit , 422-23, 534-35, 570, 575·76 ; officers, 424, 462, 572 ; racial discrimination at, 545, 572; resolution on Negro Building, 46 I-62 ; Tuskegee exhibit, 543-44 Atlanta Exposition. See Atlanta Cotton States and International Exposition Atlanta Exposition address, 43, 373, 393, 4I 3 ; content influenced by Emily Howland, 574 ; manuscript version , 578-83 ; prelude to, 373 ; standard printed version, 583-87. See also "As separate as the fingers"; "Cast down your bucket where you are" Atlanta Journal: describes Christian Workers' Convention, 373; news item in, 37I-73 Atlanta Lumber Company, 462 Atlanta Riot (I 906) , 5 I7 Atlanta University, 48, I34, 459 ; alumni of,.53, 62, I2I-22, 392-93, 5I7 ; officers of, I97-98 ; Studies of the Sociology of Race, 460 Atlantic M onthly, 357 Atlantic Rubber Company, 424 Atwater, Wilbur Olin, *547, 557, 573; authorizes BTW to make dietary study, 546 Auburn Theological Seminary (N.Y.), 348 Austin, James W., I59-60 Avery Normal Institute (S.C.), I I8, I66, 325 Babcock Extinguishers, 388 Bacon, Alice M ., 347, *349 Bacon, Francis, 92 ; Margaret Washington 's views on, 252 Baker, Eleanor Jameson Williams (Mrs. Walter), 33, I45 ; bequeaths funds to Tuskegee and BTW, I 24-25, 240 Baker, Mrs. Walter. See Baker, Eleanor Jameson Williams Baldwin, William Henry, 529 Baldwin, William Henry, Jr., 460, 521 , 522, *529-30 ; agrees with BTW's philosophy, 530 ; letter from, 577-78; praises BTW's work at Tuskegee, 578 Ballantine, Anna Thankful, *3 Band of H ope, 40 Band of Hope Chronicle, 40 Bank of Tuskegee : refuses to cash checks, 360 Banks, Frank D ., I47, 430, 433 Bannister, Miss, 529 Baptist H ome Missionary Society, 43, 428, 433 Baptist Leader, 65-66, 7I Baptists: BTW criticizes black clergy, 72-73; Daniel A. Payne agrees with BTW's criticism of black clergy, 98; Francis J. Grimke deplores condition of black clergy, I I4 Barbour, Thomas Seymour, 3, *4 595 The BooKER T. WASHINGTON Papers Barnett, Ferdinand Lee, 1og, 518 Barnett, Frank Burgoyne, r6o Barnett, Ida B. Wells. See Wells-Barnett , Ida B. Barr, Elmer E., 1o6 Barr, Katherine Juanita Baskins, 104, *ro6, 247 Barrett, Harris, 336, 341, 347, 429, 431, 445 Barrett, Mrs. Harris, 347 Barrows, Isabel Hayes Chapin (Mrs. Samuel J.), *395 Barrows, Samuel June, *1 71-72, 395 ; gives "Chocolate Baby Scholarship," 205-7 Baskins, Katherine Juanita. See Barr, Katherine Juanita Baskins Bassett, Andrew, 443 Beard, Miss, 522 Beard, Augustus Field, 68, *6g, 220, 325 Bedford, Robert Charles, 223, 270, 522; letters from, 78-79, roo-ror, rog-ro, 313, 574-75 ; letters to, 257-58, 360; loses position to black minister, 78-79 ; on BTW's rivalry with William B. Paterson, roo-ror; on his love of South, rog-ro; on Slater Fund increase , 313; reports on speech by Frederick Douglass, 231 ; trustee of Tuskegee Institute, 274, 300; works as fund raiser, 111 Beecher, Henry Ward, 44 Bell, Frank, 305, 307; letter from, 39697 Bell, Henry, 264, *265, 269 Bell, ]., 163-64 Bell Street Chapel (Providence), 373, *374; BTW on program of, 379 Belleville Academy (Ala.), g Bemis, Edward Webster, 502, *so6 Benedict, William Addison, * r68; BTW criticizes, 288-Bg; letters to, 211-12, 228-29, 288-Sg Bennett College (N.C.), 389, 529 Benson, John J.: on racial violence in Alabama, 544, *545 Benson, Maria A., 58 Berea College (Ky.), 50, 22I, 522 .Bethel Literary and Historical Association (Washington, D.C.), 176, 194 Bibb, Joseph D., 228, *243, 352; advocates black teachers for black schools, 242-43 Bierce, Sarah C. See Scarborough, Sarah C. Bierce Billings, John Shaw, 436 Bird, Edmond Anderson, 36, *37 Birmingham Age-Herald, 243 Black history, 121-22; need for, 447-48 Black leadership in Washington, D.C., 397-98 Black life: affected by Depression of 1893, 28g-go; health condition in cities, 434-35, 436; housing conditions , 340, 409; progress of, 344-45, 525; rural conditions, 7-9, 26, 2I7-I9, 265, 282-83, 295-96, 323, 345, 365, 435-36, 523-27; sex morals, 340, 345, 524-25; slavery affects, 320; Tuskegee Institute influences, 316, 321 ; urban conditions, 3 I6, 433-36; work habits, 284 Black nationalism, 377-78, 448, 497 Blair education bill, 133-34 Blake, E. W., 231 Blandon, Mary Willa, 493, *494 Bloomfield Academy (Va.), go Blundon, Ada C. See Pollock-Blundon, Ada C. Blundon, Frank C.: praises BTW's criticism of black clergy, 119, *120 Blyden, Edward Wilmot, 496, *497; T. Thomas Fortune's opinion of, 501, so6 Board of Indian Commissioners, 4I, 42 Bolling, Eliza, 225-26, 436-37 Bond, Irene, 507, *soB ; fired by BTW, 519 Boothe, C. 0., *271-72 Boston, Charles A., 429, 432-33, 443 Boston Guardian, 15 Boston Latin School, I97 Boston Museum of Fine Arts, 86 Boston Riot (1903), 460 Boston Transcript, 277 ; BTW item on black education in South, 267 Boston Traveler, 63 Boston University, 279 Boston Young Men's Christian Union, 529 Boulding, Benjamin, 435 596 INDEX Bowdoin College (Me.), 42, 212 Bowen, Cornelia, 284-85, *288, 319, 321 Bowen, J. W. E., 458 Boyd's Academy (Tex.), 62 Bradford, Alex C., 223, *224, 225 Brandom, George W., 325-26, 333, 343, 429, 433 Bransford, Susan B., *367-68, 381, 49192 , 543 Brassell, Walter R ., "165, 167 Breaux, Joseph Holmes, 156 Breaux, Lewis Felix, 156 Brewer, S. L., 270 "Bright Eyes." See Tibbles, Susette La Flesche British West Africa: cotton-growing in, 414 Brocks, Thomas A., *71 Brooklyn City Mission, 183 Brooks, Phil'ips, 195 Broun, William LeRoy, "go, 406, 408; letter to, 87-90 Brown, Ellen M ., 178 Brown, Hallie Quinn, 255, "256, 261, 377; letters to, 255-56, 368-70 Brown, Jacob Tileston, *62 Brown,John,43, 257 Brown, Joseph Emerson, 581 Brown, Rose Ella Lumpkin, 327, 335, 336, 342 Brown University (R.I.): alumni of, 4 Browne, Hugh Mason: uses "cast down your bucket where you are'' metaphor , 410,413 Brown's Hill School (Va.), 442 Brownsville affray, 455 Bruce, Blanche Kelso, 63, 66, 84, 322, 397 Bryant, Algie, 454, "456 Buffum, Arnold, 67, *68 Bullard, Elizabeth L. (Mrs. Stephen H.), *126-27; letters from, 127-28, 132 Bullock, Rufus Brown, 41, *42-43, 568 Bumstead, Horace, "I 97-98; on training black clergy, 197 Burke, Wilhelmina C., 292, 293, 294, 367, *368 Burnell, A. T., 522 Burney, Grant, 544, *545 Burr, George Lincoln, 406, *408 Burrill School (Aia.), 522 Business enterprise, 341,474-75, 526; Colored People's Building and Loan Association, 429; Dunbar National Bank, 349; National Negro Business League, 348; National Negro Finance Corporation, 349; opportunities in South, 411, 526-27; Tuskegee Institute Savings Bank, 349 Butler, Benjamin Franklin, 240 Butler bill, 497 Byron, George Gordon, Lord, 129 Cable, George Washington, 46, 6o, 61; BTW advises on black education, 12021 , 262; BTW advises on crop-lien laws, 7-9; on Lake Mohonk Negro Conference, 40-41, 45 ; seeks information on crop-lien laws, 5; T . Thomas Fortune comments on, 69, 70 Caldwell, Charles Columbus, *so Calhoun, John Caldwell, 444 Calhoun Colored School (Ala.) , 320, 323, 328,432, 438,489, 522,528; founding, 161 -64, 481-84; fund raising , 296 Calloway, James Nathan, 104, *105, 138, 167, 245, 393, 394, 454, 464, 487, 492,495, 533, 542,563, 564; reports on Tuskegee farm, 241-42; serves on textbook committee, 132 Calloway, Mrs. James Nathan, 245 Calloway, Lettie Louise Nolen (Mrs. Thomas].) , 17, *18, 105,176, 179, 254,416 Calloway, NannieS., 105, *1o6 Calloway, Thomas Junius, 18, *177, 224, 374, 418-19, 427, 429, 459, 509, 530 ; letters from, 176, 182, 194-95, 415-16 Campbell, George Washington, 99, 106, 115, I 16, 272, 274, 276, 300, 301; aids in financial crisis, 360; on Force Bill, 66-67 Canaday, Edward M ., 326, 342 Cannon, Joseph Gurney, 423 Capital City Bank (Atlanta), 462 597 The BooKER T. WASHINGTON Papers Capital City Savings Bank (Washington , D.C.), I9I, I94 Cardozo, Francis L., *I I 7-I8 Carnegie, Andrew, 530 Carpenter, Mary (Mrs. Russell Lant), *396 Carpenter, Russell Lant, 38-40 Carroll, Clarence F., I5I, *I52 Carter, John W., *35, I75, 244, 292, 304-5 Carter, Norma E. Walker, I04, 2I3-I4 Cassedy Hall, 382 Cassels, 26 I "Cast down your bucket where you are," 579, 584 ; early use of, 4IO, 4I3, 496. See also Atlanta Exposition address Cayton, Thomas A., *37 Centennial Exposition (Philadelphia), 572 Chace, Elizabeth Buffum, 67, *68 Chamberlain, Daniel Henry, 4I, *42 Chambliss, William Vivian, 233, g88, 487,493 Chaney, George Leonard, 6-7, IOI, 274, goo, 356, 522 Chapman, Leonora Love. See Kenniebrew , Leonora Love Chapman Chase, Salmon Portland, 240 Chavis, Prof., 389, 529 Cheeks, R. M., *458 Cheney, Ednah Dow Littlehale, *48; letter from, 47; letters to, 50-5I, II6, 424-25, 484 Cheney, Seth Wells, 48 Chesapeake and Ohio Railroad, I08, 429 Chicago Commons Social Settlement, 506 Chicago Inter Ocean, 220, 307, 574 ; interviews BTW, 502-5 Chicago Present Age, 43 Chicago School of Civics and Philanthropy , 506 Chicago Theological Seminary, 506 Chicago Western Appeal, 570 Child labor reform, 374 Choate, Rufus, I86, 347 "Chocolate Baby Scholarship." See Tuskegee Institute donations; Barrows, Samuel June Christian at Work, 333 Christian Observer, g8I Christian Recorder, I66 Christian Register, I 72, 385, 395 Christian Union, 44, I97, 220, 307; BTW criticizes black clergy in, 7I-75 Christian Workers' Convention (Atlanta ), 37I, 373 Christiansburg Industrial Institute (Va.), 455 Claflin University (S.C.), 5I7 Clapp, Mrs. E. Herbert, 205 Clark, Mr., 265 Clark University (Ga.), 403, 5I7, 522 Clarke, Miss, 468 Claytor, William J., 428, 43 I, 440 Cleaveland, Abby E ., 343 Cleveland Gazette, 45, 63 Clifford, John Robert, *I07-8; praises BTW for stand on black clergy, I07, 116-I 7 Cochran, Jerome, *I65, I67 Colby College (Me.), 43, 2I2 Coleman, Mr., I73 Collier, Charles A., 423, 46I, *462, 48o-8I, 5I6, 568,57 I, 572, 575; BTW appointed Negro commissioner by, 48o-8I ; invites BTW to speak at Atlanta Exposition, 570 Collins, Ellen, *I IO·I I, I8o, 223, 264, 308; cautions BTW on his health, 385; letters from, I33, 385-86; on charity, I 10; recommends Richard T . Greener for position, 258-59 Collins, Joseph B., I 10, *I I I Collins, Mary, I8o, 223, 308 Colorado State Penitentiary (Canon City), 233 Colored Farmers' Alliance, 452 Colored Methodist Episcopal (C.M.E.) Church, 3I2 Colored People's Building and Loan Association (Hampton, Va.), 429 Colored State Teachers' Association (Ala.) , 35, I59 Colored Teachers' Agency (Washington , D.C.), 4I6 Colored Women's League of Washington , D .C., 256 Columbian Law School (Washington, D.C.), 5I8 sgB INDEX Columbus Female College (Ga.), 577 Commission on Interracial Cooperation, 348 Committee of Fifteen, 529 Committee of Forty, 46 Committee of Twelve for the Advancement of the Negro Race, 460 Communist party, 461 Concord School of Philosophy (Mass.), 48 Conference for Christian Education in the South, 530 Congo Free State, 1oo; BTW opposes emigration to, 24 Congo Reform Association, 4, 1oo The Congregationalist, 220 ; BTW on lynching, 361-64 Congregationalists, 69, 112, 357, 395 ; BTW evaluates ministers, 72; Robert C. Bedford on union of Georgia and Alabama churches, 109-10 Congress on Africa, 269 Connover, William Wadsworth, 70, *71 The Conservator, 109 Constitutional League, 455 Convict-lease system, 136 Cooper, Annie J., 444 Coppin, Levi Jenkins, 1I2, "I 13 Cornell University (N.Y.) , 417 ; account of BTW's visit to, 405-8 ; faculty of, 42, 407-8 The Corona, 403 Cotton States and International Exposition . See Atlanta Cotton States and International Exposition Councill, William Hooper, 95, 227-28, 535 ; appointed auxiliary commissioner of Atlanta Exposition, 480 ; BTW asks cooperation of, 77 ; vies for school funds, Io6 Cox, Mr., 307 Cox, Mrs., go6 Cravath, Erastus Milo, 3, 4I, 354 Crawford, Rev., I 1o Crawford, Frank E. (alias). See Davidson , Charles E. Crime: among blacks, 526; police tactics in Chicago, 435 ; police tactics in Washington, D .C., 435 ; reasons for high incidence in cities, 434-35 Crogman, William Henry, 516, *517 Cromwell, John W., 4I Crop-lien system, 26, 2IO, 217, 477, 493, 526, 551; BTW describes, 7-9, 282-83, 364-66; discussed at Hampton Alumni Association meeting, 333, 335-36 ; discussed at Tuskegee Negro Conference, 295-96, 297; George W. Cable requests information on, 5 Cropper, Lula M., 178, *179 Crum, Amanda E., *71 Crummell, Alexander, 108 Cumberland University (Tenn.), I59 Curry, Jabez Lamar Monroe, 159, 215, goB, 314, 382, 390,418,427,467; asks BTW to help prepare history of Negro education, 354 ; criticizes campus appearance at Tuskegee, 404, 479-80; letter to, 469-79 ; letters from, 354, 403-4, 475 Cuticura soap, 148 Cuyler, Theodore Ledyard, *183 Dancy, John C., 34 Daniels, Marshall Gaston, *49-50, 54-55, 7I , 495, 515 Danielson, Mrs., 229 Darien (Ga.) Gazette, 337 Dartmouth College (N.H.), 4I Davidson, Charles E. (alias Frank E. Crawford) , 146, ... 147, 170, 233, 273 Davidson, Mrs. Charles E., 146 Davidson, Eliza, 24, 38, 98, I47, 169, 222, 237, 239, 262, 269, 270, 272, 273, 485 Davidson, Hiram R., 38, 64, 91 , 222, 273 Davidson, Joseph, 259, 261, *262, 485 Davidson, Mack, 91 Davidson, Martha L. (Lizzie), 259, 261, *262, 265, 269,485 Davidson, William K ., *38, 91, 170 Davis, Albert G., 14, *15, 106 Davis, Beulah Thompson, *532 Davis, George]., 147-48 Davis, J. E., 350 Davis, James M ., 126 Davis, Jefferson, 84, 186 Davis, John M., 115, I 16 Davis, Joseph E., 84 Davis, Sylvia Robertson Howard (Mrs. Albert G.), I5, 104, *106, 155 599 The BooKER T. WASHINGTON Papers Dawes, Anna Laurens, 521,522, *529 Dawes, Henry Laurens, 529 Dawes Severalty Act (1887), 374,529 Dawson, John, 589 De Forest, John William, 41, *43 Democratic party, 12, 86, 392, 393, 491, 558. See also Gold Democrats Denison, John Henry, *54 Derrick, William B., 214 De Vaughn, A. M., *545 Dexter Avenue Baptist Church (Montgomery ), 62 Diet: BTW's commissary purchases, 536-42; studies of Alabama blacks, 546-47, 556-57, 573 Diggs, Charles L., 464, 465 Dillard, Burton Harrison, I55 Dillingham, Mabel Wilhelmina, 161, *162, I63-64, 299,328,432, 447; BTW speaks at funeral of, 48 I-84 Dillingham, Pitt, 162, 522 Dillon, Halle Tanner. See Johnson, Halle Tanner Dillon Disfranchisement: in Alabama, 363; in Mississippi, 84-85 Dixie Training School (Va.), 347 Dizer, Silas C., 564 Dizer, Mrs. Silas C., 564 Dizer Fund, *564 Dodge, Prof., 522 Dodge, William Earl, 130, 553 Dole, Charles Fletcher, 356, *357 Dole, James Drummond, 357 Doles, Martha S., 329, 343 Donaldson, Laura Murray, 179, 253, 561, 562 Dorothy Hall, 83 Dorsette, Cornelius Nathaniel, 59, 6o, I66, 202-3, 256, 274, 292, 295, 30~ 3 I2, 535; aids Thomas A. Harris, 561 ; appointed auxiliary commissioner of Atlanta Exposition, 480; career of, 186; concern for fire safety at Tuskegee, 388-8g; health of, 202; helps Halle T. D. Johnson prepare for Alabama medical examination, !65 Douglass, Frederick, 34, 39-40, 84, 153, I82, 322, 397, 398, 450 ; arrangements for speech at Tuskegee, 223-25; at Tuskegee commencement (1892), 231; letters from, 183-84, 520; letters to, 225, 396; on platform with BTW, 364 Downing, Henry F., *84 Driver, Matthew T., 292, *388, 495, 533 Driver, Virginia L . Adams, 388 Drummond, Henry, 145, 146 Du Bois, William Edward Burghardt, *459-61; seeks teaching position at Tuskegee, 459 Dunbar National Bank (N.Y.), 349 Dutch Reformed Church, 506 Eas!ey, Smith W., Jr., 392 Eastman, Mary L., 134, 171 Eaton, John, 40, *41-42 Eddy, James, 374 Education, higher: black colleges, 95 Education, industrial: Calhoun Colored School, 481-84; federal aid, gg-101; T. Thomas Fortune endorses, I82; influence of Samuel C. Armstrong, 317-21 ; need of blacks for, 509-10 ; Tuskegee methods, 372 Education, public school: agricultural and industrial training, 443-45; attitudes toward, 323-24, 333-36, 345; BTW on need for schoolhouses, 550; BTW on significance in black life, 549-53; general conditions, 217-18, 322-49; Gulf states, 323; history of black schools, 354; houses, 120-21, 267, 330-33; improvements needed, 439-43; industrial education in black schoo's, 577; length of term, 295, 525-26; Massachusetts, 283 ; means of black progress, I6-J7, 476; New Jersey black schools, 328-36; North and South compared, 362-63; political corruption of, 14; poverty of, 372; racial division of school funds, 426-27; racial inequality, 26-27, 262-63, 283; segregation, 242-43; teachers, 6, 8283 , 296, 298, 325-30; teachers' examinations , 20-21 ; teachers' institutes, 2I5, 323-24, 334; value of small s:hool, 529; Virginia black schools, 326-33; white teachers in black schools, 242-43 Edwards, William Junior, 530 6oo INDEX Eliot, Charles William, 126 Elliott, Mary A., 254; describes southern trip, 236-39; letters from, 37-38, 90-91, 169-70, 222, 236-39, 260-62, 268-7o, 272-73, 485-86 Elliott, Noah A., 38, 91, 222, 236, 262, 270, 273 Elliott, William, 452 Elyton Land Company (Birmingham) , rgo Emancipation Day, 383, *496 Emerson, Ralph Waldo, 48, 488; quoted, 154 Emerson Club, 487, *488 Emigration from U.S., roo, 377-78, 497,526 Emma, 175, 178, 353 Encyclopedia Africana, 461 Endicott, William, Jr., *86 Epidemics: at schools and colleges, 488-8g; at Tuskegee, 488-8g Episcopal Church, 427 Episcopalians, 72, 168, 380; work among blacks, 435 Epworth League, 51 7 Equitable Life Assurance Society (Atlanta), 238 Esmond, Darwin W., "588 Estep, Rufus, 589 Evans, Clement Anselm, 461, *462, 569 Evans, Nellie, 443 Fair, James Graham, 194 Fallows, Samuel, 502, *505 Fant, Lula Dona, 47, *48, 50-51 Farmer's League Club, 435 Fenderson, W. J., 334-35 Ferguson, Mrs., 160 Ferguson, Henry Clay, 232, 358-6o, 522, 528 Ferguson, Washington, 152, 263 Fields, Catherine, 430, 445, 446 Fifteenth Amendment, 589 Fifth Massachusetts Regiment (black), 42 First Baptist Church (Hampton), 441 First Congregational Society, 357 First Unitarian Church (Boston), 172 Fisher, Mrs., *377, 385, 388; cautioned about her work by BTW, 386; fired by BTW, 387 Fisk, Clinton Bowen, 40, *42 Fisk Jubilee Singers, 177 Fisk University (Tenn.), 65, 68-6g, 176, 285,349, 38o; alumni of, 3, 17-18, 59, I 05-6, 177, 243, 429, 458, 459, 521' 528-29, 563; faculty of, 42, 299, 354, 522 Fleet, Miss. See Greener, Mrs. Richard Theodore Fletcher, Alice Cunningham, *374-75, 379 Florida Baptist Seminary, 62 Flournoy, John M., 542 Floyd, William D., 65-66 Folk music. See Music Folsom, CoraM., 61 Foote, Mrs. Henry W., 126 Foraker, Joseph Benson, 455 Force Bill, 67, 133-34 Ford, Mary Alice. See Armstrong, Mary Alice Ford Ford Peace Expedition, 506 Fort, Simon Peter, *355 Fortune, Timothy Thomas, 34, 84, rog; asks for loan, 172; critical of Lake Mohonk Negro Conference, 69-70; letters from, 18-1g, 6g, 153-54, 172, 173, 182, 506, 516 ; on Edward W. Blyden, 501; on industrial education, 182; on Isaiah T. Montgomery, 85; seeks post as minister to Haiti, 153-54 Forty-third Massachusetts Regiment (black), 197 The Forum, 23, 433 Foster, Katie Louise, 491, *493 Foster, Luther H., 582 Foster, Samuel Berkeley, *49, 54-55 Free Baptist Church, 117 Free Soil party, 86 Freedmen's Aid and Southern Education Society, 43, 48, 279, 517 Freedmen's Bureau, 42, 43, 450 Freer, Romeo Hoyt, *588 Friendship Baptist Church (Atlanta), 404 Frissell, Hollis Burke, 6o, 259, 343, 348, 349, 385, 407, 522, 528; at Second Hampton Negro Conference, 427, 428,429, 430,431, 432,433,435, 437-43,445, 447 ; letters from, 1616ox The BooKER T. WASHINGTON Papers 62, 395-96, 473, 548; letters to, 394-95, 368, 479-80, 48g-go, 547-48 Frothingham, Frederick, 355, *357, 385 Frothingham, Mrs. Frederick, 355, 356 Frothingham Fund. See Frothingham, Frederick Fuller, Margaret, 48 Future State, 529 Gaines, Wesley J., 423 Gammon Theological Seminary (Ga.), 278-79 Gardiner, Lawrence, 337 Garner, Mitchell Dorsette, 78, *79, 134 Garrett Biblical Institute (Ill.), 43 Garrison, William Lloyd, 40 Garrison, William Lloyd, Jr., 41, *44, 67,379 Gates, Isaac Edwin, *264 General Education Board, 86, 391, 529 George, Henry, 44, 366 Georgia Pacific Railroad, 462 German West Africa, 106 Germany, Gloss Lorenzo, Jr., "55 Geronimo, 128 Ghana, 461 Gilbert Seminary (La.), g6 Giles, Harriet E., *404, 469 Gilman, Daniel Coit, 390, *391, 395, gg6,459,46g, 471,553 Gilman, Frederick N., *162 Gilreath, Belton, 15 Gladstone, Herbert John, 93 Glendale College (Ohio), 3 Glenn, Gustavus Richard, *577 Gloucester Normal and Industrial School (Va.), 441 Glover, Robert, 178, *179 Godkin, Edwin Lawrence, 133, *134 Godman, W. D., g6 Goethe, Johann Wolfgang von, 92 Goins, Howell L., *6, 20-21 Gold Democrats, 86, 491 Goodrich, Charles L., 438 Gordon, John Brown, *462 Grady, Henry Woodfin, 32, 393, 462, 581 ; BTW criticizes, 28-29; monument described, 238; southern burial story quoted, 188-89 Grant, Abram [Abraham) L., 422, 423 Grant, John Cowles, 502, *506 Grant, Ulysses S., 42, 589 Grasty, William F., 326-27, 338 Green, John C., *221, 495 Green, Logan, 523 Green Academy (Va.), go Greene, Charles W.,. 33, 241, 292, *294, 389, 394, 495; BTW criticizes work of, 232-33, 311-12 Greene, James Mathew, 161, 244, *246, g88, 394.495,521 Greene, Lottie Virginia Young, 245, *246, 247-48, 249, 251, 355 Greene, Sarah F. Peake, 160, "161, 175, 178,292,293,294.521 Greener, Richard Theodore, 258-59, 415 ; letter from, 447-49; on need for black pride, 447 Greener, Mrs. Richard Theodore, 415 Grimke, Francis James, 176; on Edward W. Blyden, 496-97; on training black clergy, 1g6-g7; praises BTW's stand on black clergy, 114-15 Grooms, Mamie, 446 Gunsaulus, Frank Wakeley, 502, *505 Hale, Edward Everett, 201, 448 Hale, Samuel Q., 274, 276, *277, goo, 301 Hall, L. ]., 233 Hamilton, Altona Lillian (Mrs. Robert Hannibal), 244, *246 Hamilton, Henry, 77 Hamilton, Robert Hannibal, 21, 94, 114,174,179,244.255,292,375, 394, 495, 515, 552, 563; death of, 547-48; musical training program criticized, 266, 471-73; tribute to, 548 Hamilton, Woodman Clarke, III, *112 Hampton, Wade, 42 Hampton Institute, 5, 48, 125, 126, 127, 134, 177, 195, 199,200, 201, 210,216,220,278,279,285, go8, 312, 313, 323, 325, 341, 350,415, 473, 582, 588; Academic Hall, 522; activities of graduates, 328-47; alumni, 35, 37, 62, 124, 148, 161, 205, 226, 292, 322-47, g68, 374-75, 388, 391 ; alumni association, 123, 322-47; BTW at Hampton Negro Conference, 428, 429, 433, 437, 443, 444; BTW speech at Armstrong INDEX memorial service, g1 7-21 ; curriculum, 4g9-40; delegates to Tuskegee Negro Conference, 521 ; Dixie Training School for Nurses, g47; faculty and officers, 54, 86, 148, 162, gg5, 407, 429, 4go, 4g1 , 44g; gift for Mary F. Mackie, 147-48 ; letter to graduates, 12g; missionary department, g26, g4g, 429 ; proceedings of Second Hampton Negro Conference, 427-47; proposal for farmers' conference, 4g8; student singers, 441; supported by Slater Fund, g12-1g; Virginia Hall, 427; Whitin Chapel, 427 ; Whittier School, g46. See also Armstrong, Samuel Chapman; Frissell, Hollis Burke; Mackie, Mary Fletcher Handley, William Anderson, 125, *126 Handy, James A., 97, *g8 Hanna, Marcus Alonzo, gg2 Harding, John Wheeler, 292, *294, g25, 487 Rardon, Anna Wallace Wilson, gog, *giO Rardon, Henry Comfort, g1 o Hardwick, Benjamin Cutler, *124 Harlem Board of Trade and Commerce, 122 Harmon Award in Race Relations, g49 Harper & Brothers (N.Y.) , 44 Harper's Magazine, 44 Harper's Weekly, 577 Harris, Prof. (Fisk), 522, 528-29 Harris, Charles G., 56g, *564 Harris, John, 540 Harris, John Gideon, *159, 201, 427 ; BTW seeks position for, 471; letter from, 159; letter to, 215 Harris, Thomas A., 495, *561, 566; nearly lynched, 558-61 Harris, William Torrey, *221 , 226, 418 Harris, Wilson H., 164 Harris, Wylie, 559-60 Harrison, Benjamin, 12g Hart, Albert Bushnell, 459 Hartford Theological Seminary (Conn.), 62-6g, 7g, 458, 506 Hartshorne College, g2g Hartzell, Joseph Crane, 41, *4g, 468 Harvard School (Chicago), 506 Harvard University (Mass.), 48, 126, 1g4, g47, 447; alumni, 168, 459; blacks at, 42 r, 42 2; Divinity School, 172, g57; Law School, 42 Harvey, Burwell Town, 202 Harvey, John Frederick, *209 Harvey, W. H., 208, *209 Hatch Act (1887) , 78, 122,547 Haven, Charlotte M., 488 Haven, E. A., *488 Haverford College (Pa.), 41 Hawley, Anna C., 68, 1g2, 178, g77 Hawthorne, Nathaniel: read by Margaret M. Washington, 251 Hayden, Della Irving, g28, g4g Hayes, Rutherford Birchard, 40, 41, 42~ 95, *g6, gg1, 582 ; opinion of BTW, g6 Haygood, Atticus Greene, 25, 41, 55-56 Haymarket Riot, 291 Helena Normal School (Ark.), 177 Hemenway, Mary Tileston, 126 Henderson, George Washington, 296, *299 Hewitt, Abram Stevens, 189 Hewlett, A. S. See Hewitt, Abram Stevens Hill, Isaac W., 15 Hincks, Prof., 489 Hobbie & Teague, 106, 1rg, 114 Hoffman, Mr., 4gg Hoffman, John Wesslay, 41g, *414, 489, 5g2, 556-57 Hogue, Cyrus Dunlap, 111 , *112 Holland, Ella, gog-10 Hollis, Miss, g25 Holmes, Mary, 574 Home economics: at Tuskegee, 466-6g Hopkins, Mark, 54, 194 Hovey, Charles Fox, 86 Howard, G. B., g4g Howard, Oliver Otis, g-4, 274, goo Howard, Sylvia Robertson. See Davis, Sylvia Robertson Howard Howard College (Ala.), 112 Howard University (Washington, D .C.): alumni, 177, 570; faculty and officers, 42, 118, 279, 395 Howe, Albert, 290, 2gg Howe, Julia Ward, *484 Howell, Clark, gg2, *ggg Howell, Evan Park, ggg, 461, *462 6og The BooKER T. WASHINGTON Papers Howland, Emily, *23; influences Atlanta Exposition address, 574; letters from, 134-35, 171, 289-90, 376-77, 384-85; letters to, 23, 265, 383-84, 493-94, 564-65, 574; on charity, 290; on lynching, 376-77 Howland, Slocum, 23 Hufham, W. C., 116 Humphreys, R. C., 211 Hundley, Oscar R., 427 Hundley amendment. See Hundley, Oscar R. Hunt, Mrs., 255 Hunt, Adelia. See Logan, Adelia Hunt Hunter, Thomas, 371 Huntington, Collis Potter, 3-4, 65, 194, 264, 473, 548; letter to, 349 Hutchinson, Mr., 545 Hutt, William Eugene, 389, "390-91, 495 Hyde, Elizabeth, 346, 439, 441, 442 Illinois Central Railroad, 85 Illinois Wesleyan Univers:ty, 43 Illustrated Christian Weekly, 44 Immigration, 348 Impey, Catherine, 33, "34 The Independent, 220 Independent Central Church (Chicago ), 505 Indian Rights Association, 459 Indianapolis Freeman, 456-58, 575; BTW criticizes Henry M. Turner, 377-78; BTW defense of his criticism of black clergy, 101-3; on Negro Chautauqua, 450-51 ; polls blacks on emigration, 378 Indians, 127, 128, 132-33, 374; BTW on education of, 554· See also Apache Indians; Lake Mohonk Indian Conference ; Omaha Indians; Pawnee Indians Industrial Building Savings Co. (Washington , D.C.), 191, 194 Inge, George P., 327, 338, 339 Irving, Washington: read by Margaret M. Washington, 251 Jackson, Miss, 563 Jackson, Rev., 65 Jackson, Abner Beecher, 550, *553 Jackson, E. C., 116 Jackson, George W., 326, 334, 341 Jackson, Godfrey R., 327, 336 Jackson, Joseph Samuel, 78, *79 Jackson Enterprise School (Ala.), 553 Jamestown Exposition, 177 Jeffries, Mr., 433 Jenkins, William, 3, 449-50, 495, 531, 532, 535 Jenks, Jeremiah Whipple, 406, *408 Jennie, 175 Jesup, Morris Ketchum, 308, 473, 479; letter to, 313-16 Jeter, Purim, 524, 525, *526 Jews: Isaac M. Wise criticizes BTW, 412 Jim Crow. See Segregation John, David Clarke, 402, *403, 405, 522 Johns Hopkins University (Md.), 390, 391,506 Johnson, Dr., 246 Johnson, A. N., 566, *567 Johnson, Andrew, 97 Johnson, Edward Augustus, *121-22 Johnson, Halle Tanner Dillon, *137-38, 16o, 170, 203, 225, 245-46, 293, 370, 458, 486; career described, 192; letters from, 164-65, 166-67, 179, 250; letters to, 136, 449; takes Alabama medical examination, 164-65, !66-67 Johnson, Henry Edwin, 453, 454, *455 Johnson, James Henry Andrew, 97, *98·99 Johnson, John Quincy, 138, 375, *458 Johnston, Amanda Ferguson, 263; asks BTW to pay her mortgage, 173; letters from, 44, 47, 152, 172-73 Johnston, Benjamin, 44, 47, 152, 173 Johnston, Clara Jane (or Juanita), 152, 203 Johnston, David Lee, 6 Johnston, George Washington Albert, 152, 178, 375, 495 Johnston, Scovill, 375 Jones, Amelia H., 212 Jones, Elizabeth P., 124 Jones, George T., 117 Jones, Jenkin Lloyd, 17, 502, *505-6 Jones, John w., 566, *567 INDEX Jones, Minnie Carrie, *81 Jones, Silas, 163-64 Jones, Thomas Goode, 59, *6o, 126,504 Joseph, 173 Kaine, Alice J. (Mrs. J . L.), 404, *467, 469,479,487,491-92,494, s63; letter to, 466-67; letters from, 467-68, 498; reports to BTW on campus order, 498 Keller, Helen, 86 Kelly, 559 Keiser, 328 Kenniebrew, Alonzo Homer, 493 Kenniebrew, Leonora Love Chapman, 492, *493, s63 Ketchum, Alexander Phoenix, 3, *4 King, Dora S., 33, 64, 81, go, 91, 156, 161, 169; letter to, 125; letters from, 75-76, 79-80 King, Martin Luther, 461 King Hall (Washington, D.C.), 434 Kirby, John, 337, 340, 341 Kirk, 117 Knox College (Ill.), 43 Kolb, Reuben F., 491 Kontz, 572 Kowaliga Industrial School (Ala.), 79, 395 Ku Klux Klan, 29, 361, 376, 393,462, 485, 544-45 Labor, 57, 6o, 354-55, 364-66; blacks and, I93, 336-39,510-15 Labor Congress, 291 Lake Mohonk Indian Conference, 40, 41,42,395 Lake Mohonk Negro Conference, 40, *4I, 45,46-47, 395; participants, 40-44 ; T. Thomas Fortune cr:ti:izes, 6g-70 Landownership, black, 428-31,432-33, 436 ; loans for, s64; sale of land, 412; Tuskegee Building and Loan Association , 495 Lane, Elizabeth E., *532 Langley, E. B., 116 Langston, John Mercer, 84, 397, 398, 570 Larkin, W. J., 458 Lawrence Scientific School (Mass.), 422 Lawson, Jesse, 569, *570 Lee, Eliza A., 105, *106 Lee, James, 545 Lee, Robert E., 6o Leftwich, John C., 567 Leland University (La.), 43 Lemon, John W., 433, 441, 445 Lewis, Alonzo R., *so Lewis, John Randolph, *424, 462, 516-17, s67, 572,575, 576; letter from, 480-81 ; letter to, 423-24 Liberia, 497, 501 Ligon, Willis, 525, 526 Lincoln, Abraham, 93, 130 Lincoln Memorial Church (Washington, D.C.), 413 Lincoln Normal University. See Alabama State University for Colored Students Lincoln University (Pa.): confers honorary degree on BTW, 62 Lischey, Olive J., 16o, *I6I, 174-75, I78 Live Oak Preparatory School (La.), I20 Livingston, L. F., 423 Livingston Female Academy. See Livingston Normal College Livingston Normal College (Ala.), I36 Livingstone College (N.C.), 6I, 243 Lloyd, Henry Demarest, *29 I, 360, 366; letter from, 29 I ; letter to, 354-55 Lockery, Thomas, 338 Lockhart, Barnie Hill, 288 Lockhart, William Henry, 288 Logan, Adelia Hunt (Mrs. Warren), I7I, 174, !78, 457,527-28 Logan, Warren, 6, 38, 55, Ioo, I04, II2, 156, !78, 2II, 227,244,245, 252, 27~ 28g, 29~ 292,30~38~ 389, 394.429,43I , 449, 486, 487, 488, 495, 566; ]etters from, Ig-20, 99, 106-7, I I I-I2, 122, 138, 223, 306 ; letters to, 64, 81-82, I I3-I 4, I24-25, I2S-26, I32, I80-8I, 195, 270, 272, 288, 308, 488-8g, 563-64 Lombard, Charles Parker, 67, *68 Long Island Railroad, 529 Lord, Mr., 407 The BooKER T. WAsHINGTON Papers Lord, Nathalie, I6, I6o, s88 Lottie, 3IO Louisville and Nashville Railroad, 6o Love, Elizabeth E., 532, *533 Lovejoy, Alonzo, I I Lovejoy, George Washington, I I-I 2, 64; begins law practice, s6-s7; on Thomas A. Harris incident, 565-66 Loveless, Henry A., 480, 535 Lovely, Gilbert, I52, *I53 Ludlow, Helen Wilhelmina, 6o-6I, 2I6, 2I9, 277-78 Ludlow, James Meeker, *37 Luther, Martin, Io8 Lynch,JohnRoy,84, 397 Lynchburg Colored High School (Va.), 43I-32 Lynching, 6o, I09, 296, 348, 376, 589; BTW on, 29, 36I-64; effects on South, 298; of Mr. Swinel, 544-45; Thomas A. Harris incident, 558-6I Mabry, Robert Lee, *252 McAdoo, Orpheus, I47, *I48 McAlpine, W. H., I26 McCall, Ida Belle Thompson, I05, *106, I74, 563 McCall, James Dickens, *59, 106, 27I, 3I I, 458, 495, 532; BTW characterizes , 4I3-I4; letters to, 59, 203-4 MacCorkle, William A., 589 McDonald, Celia Elvetus, *266 McEwen, A. N., 7I-72, *I98; advises BTW on creation of Bible school, I98; criticizes BTW's attack on black clergy, 65-66 McFarland, Henry, 402 Mciver, D. W., *I22 MacKay, John William, I94 Mackie, Mary Fletcher, 588; letter from, 54; retirement gift from Hampton alumni, I24, I47; retires from Hampton, I23 McKinley, William, 392 McKinney, Fannie C., *388, 49I McKinney, Y. E., 542 McMillain, Mr., 487 McNeil, Alexander, 340 McNeill, George E., 366 Macon and Augusta Railroad, I42 MeWhorter, H. C., 589 Mahone, William, I2 Mann, Horace, quoted, I43 Mann, Thomas L., I05, *Io6, I78, 292, 454,495 Mapp, Dr., 335 March on Washington (I963), 46I Marietta College (Ohio), 42 Martin, Anitole Emile, *I 56 Martinsburg Pioneer Press, I07 Mary, 3Io Maryland Inter-Racial Commission, I77 Marshall Farm, I05, 205, 564 Marsh, David, I64 Marshall, Charles Lives, 453, "455 Marshall, James Fowle Baldwin, I62, 2I2, 483; bequest to Tuskegee, I59Go ; influence on Tuskegee, 529; letter from, 85-86 Marshall, Napoleon Bonaparte, 422 Mason, Ellen Francis, III-I2, II3, 272 Mason, Ida Means, III-I2, II3, 272 Mason, Rosa, 46 Massachusetts Indian Association, I27, *I 28, I32-33 Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 86, 39I, 470 Massey, John E., 442 Mathews, Josephen, 76-77 Mathews, Walter, 76, *77 Matthews, William E.,.4I6 May, Abigail (Abby) Williams, 522 May, Julia Crudine Allen, 82, *83 May, Samuel, 5I Mead, Edwin D., 447 Meadville Theological Seminary (Pa.), 374, 505 Meharry Medical College (Tenn.), I55 Memphis Free Speech, I08 Memphis Post, 42 Menafee, Crawford Daniel, *Io7, I I3 Menafee, Martin A., 7I Merchant, Dr., 343 Merrimack, I24 Methodist Episcopal Church, I20, I8 I, 5I7 Methodists: BTW criticizes black clergy, 72-73; Daniel A. Payne agrees with BTW's criticism of black clergy, 98; Francis ]. Grimke deplores condition of black clergy, I I4 Michael, John Henry, 55 I, *553 6o6 INDEX Migration within U .S., 532-37 ; BTW's remedy for rural exodus, 437; from Alabama, 5 Milholland, John E., 455 Milton, John: quoted, 144 Milwaukee Harvester Co., I I2 Mississippi constitutional convention, 84, 85 Mitchel, Edward Cushing, 41, "43 Mitchell, John, Jr., 566, *567 Mobile and Ohio Railroad, I5 Mobile State Republican, 198, 567 Mobile Weekly Press, 566, 567 Montana Indian School, 51 Montgomery, Benjamin T., 84 Montgomery, Isaiah T., *84-85 Montgomery Advertiser, 9. I I5, I r6, 122, 123, 124, 125, 167,533. 534; BTW uses "As separate as the fingers" metaphor in, s83; characterizes Blanche K. Bruce's commencement speech, 63; le.tter to, 128-29 Montgomery Industrial School (Ala.), 522 Moore, Bellina, 380, *38 I Moore, Lewis B., 296-97 Moore, Lula, 380, *381 Moore, Mary Caroline, I 75, I78, I95, 239. 255 Morgan, John Tyler, 4, 99, *roo, 297 Morin, M . Arnold, 94, roo, 132, 244, 251; letters from, I 12-13, I I5·I6, 307 Morin, Mrs. M. Arnold, 16o-6r, 251 Morrill Act (1890) , 77, *78, 95, 99IOI , 125,272, 358 Morris Brown College (Ga.), 243 Morris, R. R., 271, *272 Mortgage system. See Crop-lien system Morton, Mr., 381 Morton, Julius Sterling, *573 Mosely, Kate, 332 Moton, Robert Russa, 341, "348-49, 350, 431 Mound Bayou (Miss.), 85, 461 Mt. Meigs Normal and Industrial Institute (Ala.), 78, 288, 319-20, 528, 551 , 553 ; founding of, 284-85; fund raising, 296 Mt. Vernon Barracks (Ala.), 127, 128, 133 Mulchahey, Charles, 379 Murdock, W. M., 418, *419 Murie, James R., 374 Murphy, Sidney E., 535 Murray, George W., 423,451, "452 Murray, Laura. See Donaldson, Laura Murray Murray, Lucy, 253 Murray, Margaret James. See Washington , Margaret James Murray Music: instrumental, 49, 54-55, 266, 380-81, 471-73; plantation, 471-73, 515. See also Tuskegee Student Singers Mutual Life Insurance Company, III ; underwrites BTW's life, 35 I NAACP. See National Association for the Advancement of Colored People The Nation, 134 National Advisory Commission on Education, 348 National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, 109, 456, 46o, so6,519 National Association of Colored Women, 256 National Aviation Commission, 393 National Bank of Aurora (N.Y.), 23 National Education Association, 136 National Independent Political League, 108 National League on Urban Conditions among Negroes, 349 National Negro Business League, 348, 392,567 National Negro Conference, 46 National Negro Finance Corporation, 349 National Prison Association, 96 National Sociological Society, 570 National Unitarian Association: BTW speaks before, 476-79 National Urban League, 349 Negro. See Black life Negro Chautauqua, 450-51 Negro Fellowship League, 109 New Britain Normal School (Conn.) , 151-52 New England Anti-Slavery Society, 68 The BooKER T. WAsHINGTON Papers New England Conservatory of Music (Mass.), g8o New England Hospital for Women and Children (Mass.), 48 New Orleans Exposition, 115 New York Age, 70, g17, gg6; on lynching, 109 New York Central and Hudson Railroad , g84 New York Colonization Society, 497 New York Congregational Club : BTW speaks before, 279-88 New York Evening Post, 1gg, 1g4, 290 New York Freedmen's Relief Association , 110 New York Freeman, 567 New York Prison Commission, 172 New York Society for Ethical Culture, g74 New York Society of Friends, 111 New York Sun, 506 New York Vigilance Committee, 456 New York Witness, 207-8 New York World, 84 Newlin, Katherine, 210 Newlin, Sarah,. 210-11, gog Newton, Charles A., *9 Newton, Claudine, 2g7, 2g9 Newton, E. M., 2g7, 2g8 Newton, Emma Davidson (Mrs. E. M.), g8, 2g7, 2g8, 2gg Newton, Lizie, 2g9 Newton, Lula, go7 Newton Theological Seminary, 4g Niagara Movement, 460, 518 Nichols, Alice May. See Townsend, Alice May Nichols Nichols, H . W., 207, *208 Nichols, William W., 205, *207 Nkrumah, Kwame, 461 Noble, John Willock, 122, *12g Nolen, Lettie Louise. See Calloway, Lettie Louise Nolen Norfolk Association (Baptist) , 342 North Carolina College of Agriculture and Mechanical Arts, 348 North Georgia Agricultural College, 577 Nutrition. See Diet Oakland College (Miss.), go, g58 Oates, William Calvin, 490, *491, 504 Oberlin College (Ohio), 78, g50; alumni, 46, 79, 221, 588 O'Brien (policeman), 165, 167 Ogden, Robert Curtis, 86 Ogden Movement, 44· See also Ogden, Robert Curtis Oglesby, J. G., 567, *568 Ohio State Federation of Colored Women's Clubs, 256 Ohio Wesleyan University, 279 Old Ship A.M.E. Zion Church, 272 Old South Meeting House (Boston) : BTW speaks at, 199-201 Oliver, Patrick W., g29, g3g, gg7, gg8 Olivet College (Mich.), 221 Olmsted, Frederick Law, 469, *470 Omaha Indians, g74 Ontario Agricultural College, 455 Otts, John Martin Phillips, 1oo Our Dumb Animals, 385 Outlook, 44, 574 Packard, Sophia, 404 Painter, C. C., 459 Palmer, Solomon, 95 Pan-Africanism, 461 Paris Exposition, 177 Park, Robert E., 4 Parker, A. W., *499 ; letter to, 499-501; letters from, 498-99, 501 Parker, Emma Jennie, *1g8, 155 Parker, James, 178, *179 Parker, Theodore, 48 Parsons, Boston T ., 4gg Paterson, William Burns, *77-78, 242, 24g; competition with BTW for school funds, 77-78, 95, 99, 1oo, 1o6, 111, 114, 122; letter from, 95; letters to, 227-28, g52 Patterson, Thomas B., 432, 438-gg, 445 Pawnee Indians, g74 Payne, Daniel Alexander, g4, 102, 10g, 117, 119, 181 ; agrees with BTW's criticism of black clergy, 97-98 Payne, Henry C., g4g Peabody, Francis Greenwood, 427, 447 Peabody, George Foster, *86, 427, 434 Peabody, L. M ., 32 Peabody Education Fund, 8g, g6, 159, g2g,ggl,404 6o8 INDEX Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology (Harvard) , 374 Peake, Sarah F. See Greene, Sarah F. Peake Pearline soap, 536, 537, 538, 539, 540, 542 Pellew, Eliza Jay, 427 Pellew, Henry Edward, 427, 435-36 Penn, Irving Garland, *517, 566; efforts on BTW's behalf at Atlanta Exposition 567-69, 575·76; letters from, s•6-•7, s67-7o, 575-77 Penney, Edgar James, *53, 175, 178, 244. 24~ 251, 253. 26~ 271, 383, 394, 458, 486, 487, 488, 532; regarding appointment to Tuskegee faculty, 52-53, 156-57, 157-58; summer lectures, 456-57; victim of prank, 452-55 Penney, Mrs. Edgar James, 157, 175, 245, 246, 247, 248, 250, 251, 253, 486,493 Penney, Gracie, 353, *354, 487 Penney, Horace, 353, *354 Peonage, 6o People's Inst:tute (Chicago), 505 People's Party, 291 People's Village School (Ala.), 349 Perdue, Victoria, 205 Perkins, William, *so Perkins Institute for the Blind (Mass.), 86 Perry, Royal J.. 391 Petersburg Normal Institute (Va.), 327, 328 Peterson, Butler H., *458 Pettiford, William Reuben, 4.8o, 535 Phelps Hall, 83, 304, 305, 366, 383, 454.456,527, 528 Phelps Hall Bible School, 53, 196, 197, 198,272, 27~3o8 , 312,458,sso ; announcement of opening, 271 ; dedication, 293 Phelps-Stokes family. See Stokes Phelps-Stokes Fund, 83 Philadelphia Christian Recorder, 112 Philadelphia Episcopal Divinity School, 113 Piedmont Exposition (Atlanta) , 462 Pierce, Allie Lee, 251, *252 Pierce, Edward Lille, "240 Pierce, Maria L. Woodhead, 240 Pierce, Moses, 13-14 Pierce Academy (Mass.), 51 7 Pinchback, Pinckney Benton Stewart, 378 Pindle, Eliza A., 35 Pindle, Robert Alexander, *55 Pittman, Portia Marshall Washington, 38, 76, go, 149, 170, 178, 245, 250, 260, 261' 269, 371' 386, 485, 492-93. 563; describes Fourth of July, 353 ; letters from, 32-33,80-81, 353, 37576 , 561-62; relationship with Margaret M. Washington, 375-76 Pittman, William Sidney, 370 Pitts, Charles Nathaniel, 487, *488 Plymouth Congregational Church, 43, 44.502,505 Poe, Sallie Agee, 152 Pollard, R. T., 458, 535 Pollock-Blundon, Ada C., *120 Porter, Alfred Haynes, 36, 183 Porter, David Dixon, 84 Porterfield, J. A., 533 Potts, Richard, 480 Powers, James Knox, *426-2 7 Prairie View A & M College (Tex.), 3 Pratt Institute (N.Y.), 490 Presbyterian Home Missionary Society, 329 Presbyterian Union, 4 Price, Joseph Charles, 34, 6I , 84, 243 Price Normal and Industrial School (Ga.), 494 Princeton University (N.J.), 488; alumni, 37 ; Theological Seminary, 37, 458 Proctor, B. F., 40 Prohibition, 374, 505 Provident Hospital Training School for Nurses (Chicago) , 1o6 Prudence Crandall Club (Chicago), 518 Pugh, James Lawrence, gg, *100 Pugh, James M ., 363 Pullin, Charles, 453, *455 Pullman Palace Car, 478 Quakers, 34, I I o, I I I Quarles, Frank, 404 6og The BooKER T . WASHINGTON Papers Racial discrimination, 12, 34, 156, 166, 187, 227 ; BTW on, 409-13 ; railroads, 298 Racial violence. See Lynching Ramsey, Julius B., *350, 386, 387, 41920 · hired as commandant of cadets, 35~; letters to, 350, 381-82, 393, 463 Readjuster movement, 12 Reconstruction, 118 Reed, Thomas B., 423 Reese, Elie G., *213 Reformatory for black youth : movement for, 135-36 Reformed Episcopal Church (Chicago), 505 Reformed Theological Seminary (N.J.), so6 Reid, William M., 1I, 57, 335, 430, 445 Religion, 374,379, 505, so6 ; Baptists, 65-66 ; BTW on Christianity, 477-7B ; BTW on morals and religion, 143-46; Congregational churches in South, 2Bo; purity of denominations, 6g ; Roman Catholicism in Louisiana, 324 Religion, black: BTW defends position on clergy, 101-3 ; BTW's early beliefs, 522 ; clergy, 324, 340-43 ; criticism of clergy, 7I·75, 114, 116-I7, 119-20, 2g6, 2gB ; Daniel A. Payne on BTW's criticism of clergy, 97-gB ; description of, 27; establishment of Bible school at Tuskegee, Ig6-g8 ; excommunications , 341, 343 ; impact on daily life, 296 ; in South, 283 ; Phelps Hall Bible School, announcement of opening, 271 ; Phelps Hall Bible School dedication , 279 ; removal of white minister , 78-79 ; summer school in theology at Tuskegee, 25 7-5B ; training of clergy, 1Bo, gBo-B1 Republican Negro Bureau (Chicago), SIB Republican party, 392, 452, 5IB-1g, 56I, 567, 5Bg ; convention (1B56) , 86 ; in South Carolina, 452 Revels, Hiram Rhodes, 120, 35B Review of Reviews, 4I9 Reynolds, Grindall, *357 ; letter to, 355-57 Reynolds, Wilson H ., *35B ; letter from 357-5B ; letter to, 35B-6o ; seeks black faculty member, 357-58 Rice, Henry B., 343 ; on BTW's family, 263-64 Rice, William Augustus, 334, 344, 347, *34B ; on religion, 345-46 Richards, Ellen Henriette Swallow, 469, *470 Richardson, L. S., 207 Richings, George F., *181 Richmond Arsenal, go Richmond Normal High School, 567 Richmond Planet, 566, 567 Ricks, Mr., 195 Roberts, A. B., 329-30 Robinson, Jennie, 4B7, *4BB, 492, 544 Robinson, Lydia Corrie, *543 Rochester Theological Seminary, 4 Rockefeller, John Davison, 404, 471 Roger Williams University (Tenn.), 43 Rolling, Thomas, 44 Roosevelt, Franklin Delano, B6, 393 Roosevelt, Theodore, 6o, 392, 558 Rosa, E. B., 547 Ross, Bennett Battle, 546, *547 Ross, Charley, 44 Roy, John A., 204, *205, 213, 292, 294, 495 Roy, Joseph Edwin, 41, *43, 360 Rucker, Henry A., *392-93 Rudd, F., 307 Russell's Plantation, 557 Rust College (Miss.), 1oB Rutgers University (N.J .), so6 Sadie, S., 179 Saffold, Frank E., 515 Sage College (N.Y.), 406 St. Paul's Church (Chicago) , 505 Samford University (Ala.) , 558 Sanderson, David Davidson, 20-21 Sanitary League (Washington, D.C.), 436 Satterfield, Rev., 522, 528 Saxton, Rufus, 4 Sayres, Joseph D., 46I , *462 Scarborough, Sarah C. Bierce, * 46 Scarborough, WilliamS., 4I, *46, 84; criticizes Lake Mohonk Negro Conference , 46-47 610 IND· EX Schiller, Johann Christoph Friedrich von, 92 Schurman, Jacob Gould, 406, *407-8 Scotia Seminary (N.C.), 522, 528 Scotland: education in, 51 o Scott, Elizabeth ]., *494 Scott, George W., *465, 542 ; suspended by BTW, 463-65 Seay, Thomas, 95, 100 Segregation, 34; BTW on, 409-12, 478; railroad, 156, 214, 545; schools, 108. See also Racial discrimination Seventh Day Adventists, 378 Seward, William Henry, 171 , 395 Sex discrimination, 166, 171, 192 Shakespeare, William: Margaret M. Washington on Baconian theory, 251·52 Shaler, Nathaniel Southgate, *421-22 Shaw, Miss, 272 Shaw University (N.C.), 121, 122 Sheldon Jackson College (Utah), 42 Shellbanks Farm, 205 Short, Rebecca Wright, 332 Shorts, Rev., 341 Showers, Miss, 522 Shurtleff School for Girls (Mass.), 309•10 Shute, Isaac, 480 Sidney, Sir Philip, 131 Silsby, E. C., 522 Simmons, Alice, 561, *562 Simmons, Annie, 533 Simmons, Daniel, 328, *480 Simmons, J. R ., 116 Simmons, Roscoe Conkling, 561, *562 Simon, F. R., 495 Simon, Frank R., 416-17, "418 Simpson, Jettie, 35, *36 Simpson, Randall 0 ., 522, 528, *530-31 Simpson, William Dunlap, 118 Single Tax movement, 44, g66 Singleton, Charlotte Leslie, 39, *40 Slater, John F., Fund for Negro Education , 55, 56, 77-78, 89, 96, goB, 348,354,391,395, 459,467,469, 475, 480, 581 ; board of, 471 ; BTW appeals to, 313-16 ; increases Tuskegee 's appropriation, 403-4 ; on black economic and social behavior, 553 Slater Industrial Academy (N.C.), 553 611 Slaves: sale of, 412 Smalls, Robert, 452 Smiley, Albert.Keith, 40, *41, 6o-61 Smith, Alex, 572 Smith, Alfred E., 393 Smith, Charles (or Clarence) Vincent, 155 Smith, H . Monmouth, 546, 557 Smith, Henry D., 274, goo Smith, Hoke, 393 Smith, John, 353 Smith, William, 147 Smithsonian Institution, 435 Snow Hill Normal and Industrial Institute (Ala.), 530 Snyder, Mr., 152 Social gospel movement, 506 Socialist party, 291 Society of Friends. See Quakers Soulouque Plantation, 97 Souls of Black Folk, 460 South Dakota Agricultural College, 455 Southern Christian Recorder, 112 Southern Education Board, 86, 348, 529, 530 Southern Inter-State Exposition, 248 Southern Letter, 9, 37, 39, 171, 21 o, 307, 376, 407, 493 Southern Railway, 529 Southern University (La.), 97 Southern Workman, 37, 6o, 61, 162, 219, 277,303,321,376 Southwestern Christian Advocate, 43, 119, 120 Southworth, Fanny, 206, *207 Southworth, Mary, 206, *207 Southworth, William]., *207 Soviet Union, 461 Spear, Allan H., 519 Speed, John Gilmer, 578 Spelman, Laura Buel, 404 Spelman Seminary (Ga.), 404, 522 Spencer Trask and Co. (N.Y.), 86 Spiller, Rev., 441, 445 Sprague, Miss, 1o6 Sprague, Charles, 184 Sprague, Harriette (Hattie), *184 Sprague, Rosetta, 184 Spence, Adam Knight, 176, *177 Spencer, Anna Garlin, 373, *374-75, 379 The BooKER T. WASHINGTON Papers Spencer, William Henry, 374 Spingarn Medal, 349 Standard Oil Company, 291 Stanford, Leland, 194 Stearns, Mary Elizabeth Preston, 15; eulogizes Olivia D. Washington, 162-63, 257 Steele, Mrs. A. S., 522, 530 Stephens, Alexander H., 581 Stephens, George, 431, 433, 434, 437 Stevens, Margaret, 343, 430, 43 I Steward, Theophilus Gould, 97, *99 Stewart, Gilchrist, 444,453, *455-56, 474 Stewart, Thomas McCants, 34, 84, 312, 317; describes son, 455; plans for son, 474-75; worried about being segregated , 214 Stewart, Thomas McCants, Jr.: explains school prank, 452-*55 Still, William, 34 Stokes, Rev., 355 Stokes, Caroline Phelps, *83, 293 Stokes, Olivia Egleston Phelps, *83, 8s·86, 183, 220, 271, 293; interest in religious training for blacks, 1So Stokes, Thomas E. D., 293 Storer College (W.Va.), 107 Storum, James, 176 Story of Tuskegee, 415 Stowe, Harriet Beecher, 355 Straight University (La.), 296, 299, 323 Strieby, Michael E., 41, 334, 337, 344-45 Strong, William, 41, *43 Sullivan (Hampton mechanic), 339 Sumner, Charles, 240, 529 Sunday Evening Talks: "Growth,'' 554s6 ; "Reading as a Means of Growth," 91-94; "Self Denial," 12932 ; "Sowing and Reaping," 138-46; "Unimproved Opportunities," soS15 ; "The Work to Be Done by Tuskegee Graduates," 548-53 Swayne School (Ala.), 243 Swine!, Mr., 544-45 Sykes, A. J. J., 339, 342 Taft, William Howard, 393 "Talented tenth,'' 198 Talladega College (Ala.), 78, 79, 285, 323,522 Tallahassee State Normal and Industrial School, 428, 440 Tallassee Falls Manufacturing Company ,545 Tanner, Benjamin Tucker, 34, 138, *166, 271; thanks BTW for aiding his daughter, 165-66 Tanner, Henry Ossawa, 138 Tapley, Miss, 522 Taylor, Dora, *81 Taylor, Graham, 502, "so6 Taylor, James Henry, *203 Taylor, Lilla, 81 Taylor, May Cummings, 331-32, 340 Taylor, Robert R., 390, *391, 543-44 Taylor, Robert Wesley, *55; as northern agent, 351, 352 Taylor, Willie, 437 Tazewell, John H., 342 Teachers College, Columbia University (N.Y.), 288, 374 Temperance movement, 34, 51, 343 Teosinte, 382 Terrell, Annie M., *71 Theodore (child), 353 Thirkield, Wilbur Patterson, 278, *279 Thomas, Emma Lee, *195 Thomas, Harry E., *533 Thompson, Beulah. See Davis, Beulah Thompson Thompson, Charles Winston, 306, 351 Thompson, Ida Belle. See McCall, Ida Belle Thompson Thompson, Joseph 0., 15, 306 Thompson, W. P., 115, 116, 306 Thompson, Waddy, 106, 111, 115, 116, 125 Thompson, William Watson, 305, "3o6, 307 Thorn, Charlotte R., *162, 259, 328, 432, 447. 481-82, 489 Tibbles, Susette La Flesche, 374 Tiffany's, 111 Togo, 106 Tolman, Harriet S., 67, *68 Tolman, Mary (Mrs. James T.), 67, *68 Toombs, Robert, 581 Torrence, James Henry, 244 612 INDEX Tougaloo College (Miss.), 43, 285, 323 Tourgee, Albion Winegar, 378 Townsend, Alice May Nichols, 6o, 61, *62 Trask, Katrina, 86 Trigg, Frank T ., 328-29, 339 Trotter, William Monroe, 422, 460 Troy Industrial Academy (Ala.), 66, 543 True, Alfred Charles, 546, *547 Truslow, Bill, 152 Tucker, Mary A., 341-42 Tullibody Academy (Ala.), 77 Tunnell, H . B., 427, 434 Turner, Henry McNeal, 377, *378 Turner, Herbert Barclay, 343, 345, *349 Turner, John Orman, 557, "558 Tuskegee, Ala.: growth, 318 ; population , 137; Thomas A. Harris incident, 558-61 Tuskegee Negro Conference, 34, 209-10, 217-20, 226, 267, 278, 292-99, 304, 320, 389, so4, 521-29, 534, s67 Tuskegee News, 116, 277, 558-61 Tuskegee Normal and Industrial Institute -Academic department: BTW criticizes , 203-4; class schedule, 366-67; course of study, 87-90, 3 I6, 359-60, 394-95 ; Latin, 394-95, 519-20 ; library, 23; literary societies, 18 ; mathematics, 52 ; night school, 359; science, 59, 4I3 ; textbooks, I32 -Administration: act of incorporation (I 892), 274-77; commissary, 536-42; dietary studies, ss6-s 7; finances, 89, 106, 113-14, 308, 349, 360, 368, sos; food service, 463-65, 490; savings bank, 349 -Agricultural department: crops described , 87-89; curriculum, 413; dairy, 242; fruit trees, 242 ; livestock, 87-89, 332-33 ; need for profitable management, 204-5, 240-4I; student labor, 3I I-1 2 -Buildings and grounds : Armstrong Hall, Io6, 521-22, 542 ; BTW inspects , 170, 382-83 ; BTW orders clean-up, 420; BTW's residence, 249; barn, 13, 89; campus appearance, 170, 466-67, 479; chaplain's residence , I58; cleanliness of rooms, 225-26; described, 402 ; Dorothy Hall, 83; fire department, 381-82, 463; fruit trees, 88-89; inspection of dormitories, 393; landscaping, 469, 475; model cottages, 498-soo, 503-4; night watch, 386, 387; Phelps Hall, 83, 27I, 304-5, 456, 522 ; Porter Hall, 542 ; science building, 52 I ; Slab Hall, 542 ; student labor on, 30-32, 3I4 ; teachers' home, 394; truck garden, 24I ; upkeep of grounds, 232; value of, 315-I6, 3I8, 402 ; whitewashing, 244 -Donations: 3, 38-40, 51, I59-6o, 183, 207-8, 270, 272, 30~ 39~ 473. 530; abolitionists, 67, 68, 207-8; Andrew Carnegie, 530; "Chocolate Baby Scholarship," 205-7 ; criticism by donors, 473, 479-80 ; Collis P. Huntington , 3-4, 65, 264; Dizer Fund, 564 ; Ednah D. L. Cheney, 47-48, 5051 ; Ellen Collins, III-I2, 180, 223; Emily Howland, 23, 171, 265, 289-90, 376, 384, 493, 564-65 ; Mary E. .P. Stearns, 162 ; Moses Pierce, I3-I4; Phelps-Stokes family, 83, Ss-86; Sarah Newlin, 2Io-I 1, 303-4; teachers and students, 368. See also Peabody Education Fund; Slater, John F.: Fund for Negro Education -Faculty and officers: 3, 19-20, 36-37, 45-46, 59, 68, I 74, I78, 3 I0-I I, 355, 389-90, 39I, 4I3, 416,466-67, 526; Alice J. Kaine's relations with teachers, 494; BTW on attendance at functions , 425-26; BTW orders an apology , 2I3; BTW reprimands teacher, 368-70, 507-8, 5 I5 ; building and loan association, 495 ; charitable contributions , 368, 548; committee on punishments, 533; committee on school exhibit, 543-44 ; duties of Lady Principal, 255, 256; grievances, 58; Hampton graduates, 521 ; Margaret M . Washington complains of male teachers, 22 I; number, 3I4, 3I8, 402; punishment of students, 463-65, 533, The BooKER T. WASHINGTON Papers 543; relationship with students, 544; reprimand of student, 304-5; rules of conduct, 118, 5 I9-20; salaries, 52, 204, 4I4 ; sick-leave policy, 449 ; use of library, 387-88 -Founding: 87, 280-83, 3I9, 365, 372, 502 -Graduates: as leaders, 285, 320, 323; as teachers, I4, 20-2I , 526-27 ; BTW address on responsibilities and duties of, 548-53; Cornelia Bowen, 284; experience as teachers, 442; occupations of, I5 ; popularity of, 3 I6; sought as servants, 490; William J. Edwards , 530 -Health conditions: I37, I95, 486-87, 488-89; resident physician, I36, I37, I38, I64-67 -Industrial department: I9-20, 30-32, 3I I, 359, 389-90, 39I ; BTW on conditions in, 4I 7; class schedule, 36667 ; effect on students, 30-32; list of industries taught, 89; scope, 3I8; usefulness, I85, 3I4-I6, 3I8 -Northern agents: 55, I68, 289. See also Bedford, Robert Charles; Benedict , William Addison ; Taylor, Robert Wesley ; Tuskegee Student Singers -Relationship with local whites: I85, 286-87, 305-7, 3I2, 3I3-I6, 3I9, 365, 425,522 -Relationship with state government: .act of incorporation (I 892), 274-77 ; amendment to incorporation act ( I893), 299-302; financial aid, 505 ; institute charter, IOI; visit of legislators , I I I, 115-I6 -Religion at: chapel attendance, g68, 369, 53 I-32, 535 ; chaplain, 52, 6263 , I04, I56, I57-58; freedom from denominational influence, 3I6, 356; Phelps Hall Bible School, 52, I8o, I83, I96-97, I98, 27I, 279, g8o-8I, 550; summer school of theology, 25 758 -Students: address to graduating class (I 89 I ), I54-55; appeal suspension, 42 I ; attitudes toward scientific and industrial work, 4 I4 ; brass band, 49 ; carelessness, 355; carpentry department , 305; complaints, 2I3, 49 I ; donation to school, g68 ; diet, I I2, 208; discipline, 35, so, 54-55, 76-77, 8I, 288, 3IO-I I, 533, 543; employment in North, 309; letter from Frank Bell, 396-97; letter from senior class, 474; military training, 350; number, 89, 3r8, 320 ; petition BTW, 70-7I; reading, 23 ; regulations against tobacco , so, I38, 4I 9-2 I ; relations with faculty, 22 I, 544 ; schoolboy prank, 452-55; sewing circle, I8; summer work, 82, 83 ; supervision, I I9; travel on railroad, I56; wages reduced, I8o8I , 465, 470 -Trustees: and Institute property, 87, IOI ; commissioners, 276-77, go I; duties in I892 act of incorporation, 274-77 ; duties in I893 amendment of incorporation act, 300-302 ; need for independence from state, 6-7; Randall 0. Simpson, 530-3 I ; William H. Baldwin, Jr., 529 -Visitors and ceremonies: American Missionary Association officers, 220 ; commencement, 63, 230-3 I, 3I2; committee of legislators, 115-I6; Ednah D. L. Cheney, 424-25 ; Emily Howland, I34, I7I ; feminists, 484 ; H . Monmouth Smith, 546 ; Henry D. Lloyd, 29I ; Phelps Hall Bible School dedication, 27I, 293 ; Samuel C. Armstrong, 29 I-94; Summer Institute (I894), 456-58; Thomas M. Stewart, 3 I7 Tuskegee Railroad, 294 Tuskegee Student, 24, so, 64, I IS, I69, 205, 272, 307 Tuskegee Student Singers, 4, 2I, I48, 374, 379, 472-73 Tutwiler, Julia Strudwick, I35, *Ig6, g8o-8I Twain, Mark, 4 Twelfth Infantry, I28 Twenty-fifth Infantry (black), 99 Tyler, Edmund L., 29I, *294 Uncle Tom's Cabin, 355 Underground Railroad, 23, 42 Union Congregational Church (Providence ), 374 INDEX Union Pacific Railroad, 43, 52g Union Theological Seminary (N.Y.), 73; alumni, 43, 221 , 34g Unitarian National Conference, 10, 168 Unitarian Review, 10 Unitarians, 13, 17, 116, 356-57, 374, 3g5, 477, 505. See also American Unitarian Association United Confederate Veterans, 462 United Merchants Improvement Co., 55 United States African News Company (N.Y.), 84 U.S. Commission on Education in Haiti, 348 U.S. Congress, House of Representatives : BTW testifies before committee, 422-23 U .S. Department of Agriculture: dietary studies, 546, 547. ss6, 557. 573 United States Life Insurance Company, Ill U.S. Sanitary Commission, 11 o Unity, 16-17, so6 University of Alabama, 112, 136, 426 University of California, 3g1 University of Chicago, 374, 502, so6 University of Georgia, go, 3g3 University of Glasgow, 118, 288 University of Louisiana, 547 University of Michigan, 177, 518 University of Minnesota, 455 University of North Carolina, 333, 347 University of South Carolina, 42, 118, 452 University of Texas, go, 347 University of Vermont, 357 University of Vienna, 3g5 University of Virginia, go University of Wisconsin, 3g1, 414,455, sos Up from Slavery, 44, 373, 460 Vanderbilt, George Washington, 46g Vanderbilt University (Tenn.), go Vanison, Charles, 443 Vaseline, 148 Virginia Colored Concert Company, 37 Virginia Cooperative Association, 348 Virginia Military Institute, 6o Voorhees Normal and Industrial School (S.C.), 71 Waldron, Martha Mercelia, 521 Walker, Norma E. See Carter, Norma E. Walker Walker, Thomas C., 330-31, 342,428, 431,432,444, 446 Walsh, Patrick, *450 Ware, Edmund Asa, 1g8 Warren, Sapphira (Sophia) Lavinia, 32, "33, 178, 245 Washburn, Lucy M ., 405, 406, *407 Washington, Allen, 350 Washington, Booker Taliaferro, 277, 360,418, 460, 560-61 -Early years: at Hampton, 3g1; religious beliefs, 522 ; studies law, s88-8g -Family: 15, 22, 24, 32-33, 37-38, 47, 8o-81 , go-g1 , 245-46, 247-48, 250, 253, 264-65, 273; care of children, 64, 75-76, 7g-81, 125, 16g, 175, 17778 , 17g ; marriage to Margaret J. Murray, 254, 265, 268, 28g; receives legacy for children, 124-25. See also Davidson, Charles E.; Davidson, Eliza; Elliott, Mary A.; Johnston, Amanda Ferguson ; Washington, Booker T ., Jr.; Washington, Margaret James Murray; Washington, Portia Marshall -Fund raising: appeals to Slater Fund, 313-16; Robert W. Taylor as northern agent, 351, 352; William A. Benedict as northern agent, 168, 2888g . See also Tuskegee Normal and Industrial Institute, Donations -Opinions: advice to students, 554-56; Afro-American press, 202; American Missionary Association, 158, 280; being black, 24; black advancement, 422-23 ; black business, 184-g4, 400-401 , 408-12, 478 ; black clergy, 27, 6g, 71-75, 101-3, 277-78, 54g-so; black emigration, 24, 377-78; black emotions, 477; blacks during Reconstruction, 578, 583; cash crops, 504; character building, 235, 515; clean living, 140-41 ; cotton plant, 22g-3o; crop-lien system, 7-g, 210, 282-83, 335-36, 365; deaths on cam- The BooKER T. WASHINGTON Papers pus, 488-89; drawing the color line, 227; education, 128-29, 286-87, 334, 362-63, 509-10, 549-52; effects of industrial education on restricting migration to cities, 437; effects of slavery, 284-86, 373, 508-9; faculty voting, 520; Henry W. Grady, 28-29; higher education, 187; Indian education , 554; Indians, 127, 399-400; industrial education, 187, 401-2, 419, 503, 510-II, 528; Irish, 28; Jews, 28, 408-9; Jim Crow cars, 28; labor, 281, 372-73, 437, 579, 584; Lake Mohonk Negro Conference, 45; lost opportunities, 511-14; loyalty of slaves, 58o, 585; lynching, 29, 36164 ; mental development, 141-42; model cottages, 499-501 ; morality of blacks, 283; morals and religion, 14346 ; rnutual dependence of races, 186; natural law, 139-40; necessity for economic independence, 399-401; ownership of property as means of advancement, 286-88; political discrimination , 29-30; positive thinking, 405; poverty, 283-84, 383; prohibition , 127; race differences, 508-9; race prejudice, 27-28; race pride, 193; race relations, 199-201, 522-23; religion, 69, 73-75, 279, 477; religious beliefs, 103-4, 522; remedies for rural exodus, 437; role of Lady Principal, 368-70; Samuel C. Armstrong , 199-201; self-denial, 129-32; social equality, 580-81, 585-86; southern industrial growth, 18g-g1; teaching, 204, 234-36, 326; trade unions, 30; Tuskegee as example of black progress, 280-83; white race, 371 -Other black schools: advises William B. Paterson, 352; Calhoun Colored School, 161-64, 481-84; rivalry with William B. Paterson, 77, 95, 99-100, 106-7, III, 113-14, 122,227,242-43 -Personal: aloofness, 58; commissary purchases (1895), 536-42; concern for campus details, 225-26, 381-83, 389, 393, 420, 463-65; esteem for Mary F. Mackie, 147-48 ; household expenditures (1891), 148-51; inf !uence of Samuel C. Armstrong, 31718 ; life insurance, 351 ; owns shares in building and loan association, 495; physical appearance, 422, 423; skills in mathematics, 391 ; speaking style, 36, 398 -Politics: account of testimony before Congress, 422-23; endorses T. Thomas Fortune as minister to Haiti, 153; lobbying activity, 126, 127, 424; member of Congo Reform Association , 4; opposes Force Bill, 67; pays lobbyist, 270 -Public recognition: appointed cornmissioner of Atlanta Exposition, 392, 480-81 ; appointed orator at Atlanta Exposition, 569, 572; receives honorary degree from Lincoln University, 62 -Relationship with faculty : criticism of course of study, 366-67; criticism of faculty and staff, 213, 304-5. 36870 , 387, 389-90, 416-18, 463-65, 507-8, 515, 519; criticized, 58; duties of women teachers, 551 ; orders attendance at chapel and other school functions, 425-26, 531 ; rules of conduct , 118; urges cooperation with Alice ]. Kaine, 494 -Speeches: in Montgomery ( 1890), 24; before Women's New England Club (1890), 25-32; Tuskegee commencement (1891 ), 154-55; on Samuel C. Armstrong in Boston (1891), 199-201; in Washington, D.C. (1891 ), 184; to graduating class ( 1892), 229-30; before Alabama State Teachers' Association (1892), 234-36; before New York Congregational Club (1893), 279-88; at memorial service for Samuel C. Armstrong (1893), 31 7-21 ; before Labor Congress, Chicago (1893), 364-66; in Washington, D.C. (1894), 397402 ; before National Unitarian Association (1894), 476-79; at funeral of Mabel W. Dillingham (1894), 481-84 ; at Tuskegee Negro Conference (1895), 522-23; Atlanta Exposition address (1895), 578-82, 58387 . See also Sunday Evening Talks INDEX Washington, Booker Taliaferro, Jr., 32, So, S1, go, 14S-4g, 161, 16g, 175, 177, 245. 247·4S, 260, 26g, 353, 375, 4Ss, 487, 4g2, s63; letter from, 371 Washington, Ernest Davidson, 32, 75, So, 81, go, 148-4g, 161, 16g, 175, 17~ 17g,222,245,24~26~ 26g, 273,371, 375,485,487,4g2, 561, s62,563 Washington, George, 353 Washington, Gertrude, 33 Washington, Hattie Virginia Calloway, 22, 105, 247 Washington, J.]., 452 Washington, James B., 152, 355, 3g4, 4g5; letters from, 22; letter to, 533-34 Washington, Mrs. James B. See Washington , Hattie Virginia Calloway Washington, John Henry, 18, 32, 38, 4g, 77, 100, 104, 112, 124, 152, 173. 175, 232·33, 241, 244, 292, 304, 308, 311,389, 390,417,454,487, 48g, 4g5, 564; letters from, 35, so, 54-55, 387-88, 394; letters to, 170, 382, 383, 387-88, 3g4, 465, 470, 543· 44 Washington, Margaret James Murray, 23, 33, 59, 112, 151, 171, 225·26, 239, 246, 261, 262, 269·70, 273, 28g, 293, 317, 371,384, 385,425,458, 459, 4g4, 497, 521 ; applies for position , 3; aspirations, 254; health, 25g, 456,485, 562; letters from, 3, 17-18, 81, 103·5, 160-61, 174·75. 177·79, 22 I, 243-46, 246-48, 248-4g, 250-52, 252·53, 254•55, 456, 486-88, 491·93, 562-63 ; letters to, 45-46,54, 118-19; marriage to BTW, 254, 265, 268, 289; reading, 251-52; relationship with BTW's children, 175, 177-78, 245-46, 247-48, 250-51, 253; religious beliefs, 103-4; salary, 54; speaks in Mississippi, 562; textbook committee , 132; work schedule, 174 Washington, Olivia A. Davidson, 3, 4, 15, 24, 37, g1, qo, 259, 261, 26465 ,415,485, 522; eulogized by Mary E. P. Stearns, 162-63, 25 7; letter to, 146-47; role at Tuskegee, 265 Washington, Portia Marshall. See Pittman , Portia Marshall Washington Washington, Samuel Somerville Hawkins , s66 Washington, Susie Miller (Mrs. John Henry)' 33. 38, I s6, I 78, 244, 247' 250•51 Washington and Lee University (Va.), 112 Washington Colored American, 177, 56g-7o, 572, 575 Washington Cottage, 453, 454 Washington Post, 194, 450 Waterville College. See Colby College Watson, Richard, 152 Watson, Thomas Edward, 393 Weaver, Mary P., 311 Weaver, William B., 441,442, 445 Webster, Daniel, 186, 347 Wells-Barnett, Ida B., 34, 84, *108-g, 366, 378 Wesleyan College (Ga.), 577 Wesleyan University (Conn.), 488, 547 Western Railroad of Alabama, 291, 458 Western Theological Seminary, 166 Wharton, Vernon L., 85 Wheelis, Franklin Pierce, 31 1, *312 Wheelock, Fred D., *161 Whiley, Gage, 146 White, Alice L., *389, 522 White, Andrew D., 408 White, Charles A., 380, *381, 473, 544 White, George L., 177 White, Mary, 35, *36 White Liners League, 361 Whitecaps, *545 Whitman, Marcus, 552 Whittaker, John W., 39, 52, 62-63, 104, 105, 118, 156, 158 Whittier School (Va.), 346 Whittlesey, Eliphalet, 40, *42 Wilberforce University {Ohio), 41, 46, 79.99. 256,299.459 Wilborn, Andrew Jackson, "151, 495· See also Wilson and Wilborn Wiley, John, 44 Wiley University {Tex.), 455 Willcox, Walter Francis, 406, *408 Williams, Augustus, "388 Williams, Fannie Barrier, 518 Williams, James Robert, 76, *77 The BooKER T. WASHINGTON Papers Williams, Julia E., 328 Williams, King David, 453, *455 Williams, M. L., 124 Williams, Mack, 495 Williams, Robert Craig, 155 Williams, Samuel Laing, *518-19 Williams, Silvia Jelean, *266 Williams, T. Whit, 441-42 Williams, William Taylor Burwell, 422 Williams College (Mass.), 54 Willis, H. N., 248 Willis, Martha (Mrs. H . N.), 246, 249, 251, 253, 254 Wilson, Alfred, 379 Wilson, W. C., 215 Wilson, Woodrow, 86, 348 Wilson and Wilborn (Tuskegee), 149, *!51 Wimbish, Christopher C., *392 Winslow, Harriet Howard, *76, 79 Winston, George Tayloe, 333, 345, *347-48 Wisconsin Industrial School for Girls, 467 Wise, Isaac M., 412 Woman suffrage, 44, 68, 374, 424-25, 484 Woman's Central Association of Relief, 110 Woman's Home Missionary Association, !6, 367 Women's American Baptist Home Mission Society, 404 Women's Christian Temperance Union, 23, 256 Women's Conference, Tuskegee Negro Conference, 527-28 Women's Medical College (Pa.}, 7, 138 Women's National Indian Association. See Massachusetts Indian Association Women's New England Club, 25, 48 Women's rights, 48, 374, 384, 395· See also Woman suffrage Wood, Robert Williams; 211, *212 Woodhead, Maria L. See Maria L. Woodhead Pierce Woods, Charles D., 546-


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