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Index Abilene, ,  Accelerated Strategic Computing Initiative (ASCI), ,  ACM/IEEE Computer Conference,  Adobe Systems,  Advanced Micro Devices (AMD), , , ,  Advanced Network and Services(ANS) backbone of early Internet, , ,  purchase by America Online, , ,  takeover by WorldCom,  Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA), ,  appointment of Licklider, ,  overseeing Internet governance, , –, , ,  creation and funding of Internet, , , , , , , , ,  early role in coordinating defense research,  former employees in private firms, , , , ,  funding of university computer research, , ,  funding of time-share computing, ,  funding of UNIX operating system, ,  IPTO, , , , , ,  limiting of research by Mansfield Amendment ,  promotion of hacker ethic,  work on packet radio systems,  Advanced Technology Program,  AFL-CIO, ,  Aguirre, Mike,  381 Airtouch,  Alameda County, ,  Alexandria Project, ,  Allen, Paul,  ALOHANET radio-network,  Alto personal computer, , , ,  Amazon.com,  AMD, , , ,  America Online, , , ,  deals with WorldCom,  early use of Gopher software,  failure of proprietary systems,  purchase of ANS, ,  takeover of Netscape, , ,  American Electronics Association (AEA), ,  American Federation of State, County and Municipal Employees (AFSCME),  American Textile Partnership (AMTEX),  Americans for Affordable Electricity,  Ameritech Corporation, ,  Ames Research Center, NASA, , , ,  funding/participation in BAMTA, , , ,  role in attracting other research centers,  AMP Inc.,  anchors of regional development. See capital, fixed Andreessen, Marc, , , ,  antitrust interventions, , ,  against AT&T, , , , –,  against consortia,  382 Index against Microsoft, , , ,  against WorldCom,  Apache web server, ,  Apollo Computer, , ,  Apple Computer, , , , ,  beginnings of, ,  network computers and, ,  PARC influence on, , , ,  Applied Materials,  ARCnet,  Ariba,  Arizona State University,  ARPA. See Advanced Research Projects Agency ARPANET, ,  AT&T refusal to help early ARPANET,  attempt by BBN to takeover,  contribution to commercial firms, ,  expansion of network,  federal role in creation of,  guidelines for non-commercial use,  launch of,  shutting down of,  software innovations, , , ,  university participation in, , ,  Arthur, Brian, , ,  Association for Progressive Communications (APC), ,  Association of Bay Area Governments (ABAG), , , , , , , ,  associations, business, , , , ,  boosting of regional economic growth, , ,  electric power industry consortia,  elite nature of, , ,  globalization of,  government support for, , ,  in Silicon Valley, , ,  increasing number of, , ,  inspiration by Japan, ,  opportunism by members of, ,  patent sharing rules,  role as promoting standards, , , ,  Astroturf lobbying,  AT&T,  antitrust investigations of, , ,  breakup of, , , , , , , ,  commitment to universal service, , ,  early history, , ,  early resistance to supporting Internet, –,  how regulatory changes retarded technological progress, , , , –, ,  Internet backbone provider,  licensing of transistor technology,  opposition to phone competition, , , , , promotion of UNIX, ,  regulatory restrictions on, ,  spinning off Bell Labs,  undermining of local infrastructure in system,  Atari, ,  ATLAS Standards Laboratory. See MCC, ATLAS Standards Laboratory Atomic Energy Commission,  Augmentation Research Center (ARC), , , –, ,  Austin, , , , , , , ,  Austin Technology Incubator, ,  Automotive Industry Action Group,  Automotive Network Exchange (ANX),  Balzhiser, Richard,  BAMTA, , ,  federal funding for, ,  global alliances through, , , , ,  promotion of Internet commerce, ,  Bank of America, , ,  centralization of loan operations, , , ,  creation of credit card, ,  global investment,  Internet banking, ,  mergers by, ,  origin of, ,  post-Giannini changes, , ,  role in California economic development, , ,  role in Joint Venture projects, ,  Bank of Italy,  BankAmericard, , , ,  banking branch banking, , ,  business loans and, , , ,  discrimination in, ,  early regulatory restrictions,  end of local banking regimes, ,  Internet banking, , ,  subsidies for universal service,  technological effects on, , , ,  Index 383 Banking Act of ,  banks, local as regional anchors, , ,  decline of, , , , ,  Bar, Francois,  Baran, Paul, ,  Barbour, Haley,  Barkovich, Barbara, ,  BARRNET,  takeover by BBN,  BASIC, ,  Baxter, William,  Bay Area Digital GeoResource (BADGER),  Bay Area Multimedia Technology Alliance. See BAMTA Bay Area Regional Research Network,  Bay Area Shared Information Consortium (BASIC),  BBN, , ,  aquisition of its TELENET service by Sprint,  role in ARPANET, , , ,  role in creation of Internet email,  supply of researchers to PARC,  takeover by GTE,  takeover of community Internet providers, , , ,  Bechtel,  Bechtolsheim, Andy,  Bell Atlantic, , , , ,  Bell Laboratories role in early computer development, Bell Labs, , , , , , , , , ,  BellSouth,  Benham, James,  Benhamou, Eric, ,  Benjamin, Medea,  Bent, Bruce,  Benton Foundation,  Berkeley, University of California, , ,  contribution of talent to local firms, , ,  contribution to UNIX, ,  contributions to local computer industry, , ,  funding by government, ,  postwar role of,  Berners-Lee, Tim, , , ,  Best, Michael, ,  blackouts in California, , , ,  Blackwell, Ron,  Blankenship, Kathy, ,  Boeing, , ,  Bolt Beranek and Newman See BBN Bootstrap Project, ,  Bosack, Leonard, ,  Bourne, Pat,  Bradley-Burns Act,  Bravo word processing. See word processing: at PARC Brazil, , ,  British Telecom,  Broadband,  Brown and Bent,  Brown, Henry,  Brown, Jerry, ,  Bryzinsky, Terry, , , ,  BSG,  Buller, Katie,  Bumpers, Dale,  Burgman, Douglas,  Burstein, Melvin,  Bus Riders Union, ,  Bush, George H. W.,  Bush, George W.,  Bush, Vannevar, , , ,  business associations. See associations, business business-to-business commerce, , , , , , ,  Cable and Wireless, ,  cable companies, , , , , , , , , , , ,  Caldera,  California Public Utilities Commission (CPUC), , , , , ,  California Research and Education Network (CalREN), ,  California School Boards Association,  California State Association of Counties, ,  California State University,  California Tax Reform Association,  California Taxpayers Association,  call centers,  CALNET,  Cameron, Andy,  capital gains. See taxes, capital gains capital, fixed, , , , , , , , ,  decline of, ,  384 Index in Progressive Era,  in telecommunications,  undermining of, , , , ,  utilites and banks as,  capital, multinational, , ,  financial speculation, , , , , , ,  globalization of, ,  harm to workers by,  involvement...

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