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6 Transition and Change, 1974-1978 The term "new archaeology" has been much used. In the absence of progress toward usable theory, there is no new archaeology, only an antitraditional archaeology, at best. I look forward to a "new archaeology," but what has thus far been presented under the term is an anarchy of uncertainty, optimism, and products of extremely variable quality.- Lewis Binford (1977) The five years from 1974 through 1978 were a time of change and transition at Grasshopper, marked by shifts in personnel, funding, and research goals. The overlapping research emphases of these years are best described as transitional betweenWilliam Longacre's processual archaeology and Jefferson Reid's behavioral archaeology. The basic questions of prehistory remained essentially unchanged. By the end of the 1978 season, behavioral archaeology had replaced processual archaeology in its purest nomological, hypothetico-deductive, Hay Hollow Valley expression , and the Field School would never be the same. The 1974 season was a turning point in Grasshopper research. Three events signal the end of processual archaeology-the close of Paul Martin 's Vernon field school, the beginning of Longacre's active fieldwork among the Kalinga, and behavioral archaeology's expanded research agenda emphasizing methodological research and middle-range theory. Martin's death in January 1974 marked this year as the end of an era in southwestern archaeology. It brought to a close a remarkable archaeological career and the conclusion of the phenomenon that was Vernon. Although Martin's research program continued during the 1974 season, 113 when it was based at the town of Snowflake and directed by John Fritz, the energy and excitement of the Vernon experience as a dynamic force of processual archaeology in the Southwest suddenly were gone. The field school and research station at Vernon had been the epicenter for the development of processual archaeology and certainly its most active laboratory in the Southwest. It had spawned or nurtured Longacre and James Hill, the first legitimizers of processual archaeology, along with Mark Leone, Michael Schiffer, Fred Plog, Stephen Plog, Charles Redman , and Norman Yoffee, among many more. As in the annual volleyball contest to win the Mogollon Bowl, Vernon had been a friendly rival to the Grasshopper research and teaching program . The ties between Martin and Longacre fueled a close relationship between Grasshopper and Vernon staff and students. Longacre had persuaded Martin to move to Tucson in the fall of 1973 and take an adjunct appointment in anthropology at the University of Arizona. Martin's rapidly failing health kept him from his new office and from being a part of the changes then taking place at the UA, many of which he had initiated or encouraged. We cannot speculate on the effects of Martin's death and the closing of Vernon on Longacre's interest in Southwest prehistory or in Grasshopper research and teaching. Clearly what remained was waning, however, and his intellectual curiosity was increasingly directed toward ethnoarchaeology. In 1974, Longacre returned to his director's chair at the Field School to find most of the staff with developed dissertation projects. Richard Ciolek-Torrello was exploring methods for identifying the household in the archaeological context; Stephanie Whittlesey was interested in public activities, social differentiation, ritual, and models of archaeological inference; Alan Sullivan was exploring the natural and cultural processes that formed small sites; and Reid, having completed his dissertation, wanted finally to expand research to sites that bracketed the peak occupation at Grasshopper. In addition, we were faced with the continuing conversion of data recording from the standard forms to the SELGEM computer format. The Grasshopper research program had developed a momentum of its own that could proceed with only light steering by the director. Volume 40, nos. 1-2, of the journal The Kiva was devoted to Grasshopper research (Reid 1974). Titled Behavioral Archaeology at the Grasshopper Ruin, it contains a mixture of papers and research orientations that testifies to the transitional character of the times. The introductory article by Longacre and Reid (1974) takes up where Thompson and Longacre (1966) left off by describing the fieldwork for the years 1966 114 CHAPTER 6 through 1973. They emphasize the multidisciplinary objectives of theresearch and teaching program. The focus of this work is clearly within the processual idiom, as expressed by Longacre and Reid (1974: 10-11) (citations have been updated): All of these researches in concert are designed to describe and explain the processes of stability and change among the extinct cultural, behavioral and environmental systems operating in this...


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