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4 64 Culture H'istory, 19' 63-1965 It is in the practice of ethnography that the vitality of anthropology resides. -Nancy Scheper-Hughes (1992), quoted in Kus (2000:166) We begin Grasshopper's history in the 1960s, during a time that was turbulent socially and in American archaeology as well. In 1963, Raymond Thompson moved the field school to Grasshopper to begin excavation and training at a new venue following a short-lived experiment in southeastern Arizona. In so doing, he took on Emil Haury's mantle, and, as director, he began the Field School in Haury's footsteps, following the time-honored traditions of culture history and the field school as they were represented at Point of Pines. The Field School Thompson established would endure far longer than he envisioned, however, going beyond three brief years of culture history to encompass thirty seasons of fieldwork, two more directors, and two additional schools of archaeology . This chapter chronicles the brief history of the culture-history years at Grasshopper, which lasted from 1963 to 1965. The period was not only short, it was also impure-that is, it had scarcely begun before it took on the character of processual archaeology, which emerged during that time. Therefore, the interlude may represent the culture-history approach less adequately than if viewed from other perspectives. For this reason, among others, we cannot use it as a criterion for evaluating the success of culture history at Grasshopper. We can simply catalogue these years and use them as a point of contrast for later periods in the history of Grasshopper. First, however, we must discuss the transfer of directorship and the brief and poorly recorded experiment in which the field school abandoned the mountains of east-central Arizona. We also present how the camp itself was built, for the buildings and facilities that represented the Grasshopper camp not only were built under Thompson's tenure, but endured to the end. A New Director Takes the Haury Mantle The transition from Byron Cummings to Haury, as we have seen, was rapid and dramatic. There was only a one-year overlap, during the 19371938 academic year, when Haury was head of the Department of Anthropology at the University of Arizona and Cummings was still director of the Arizona State Museum. The transition was dramatic, in that each man exemplified a distinct perspective in archaeology. Cummings approached the record of the past as a pioneer, explorer, and collector, whereas Haury was among the first of the anthropologically trained culture historians. The transition from Haury to Thompson was not so dramatic or well marked. Having left Point of Pines secure in the knowledge that the Mogollon had been validated at last, Haury turned the field-school reins over to a director who would continue in the same time-honored tradition of culture history but in an atmosphere free from the spurs of controversy and debate. Succeeding Haury would have placed incredible expectations and burdens on anyone, and attempting to duplicate Haury's archaeological contributions would have been folly. Moreover, to have rivaled Haury's fame would have required embracing a new paradigm while repudiating the old. Thompson could never have contemplated such acts. It is an interesting sidelight that the Chicago Field Museum was charting a parallel course. Paul Martin and John Rinaldo, having left New Mexico in 1954, began anew in 1957 with a field camp at Vernon, near Show Low, Arizona, from which to investigate their hypothesis that the Pine Lawn Valley Mogollon had moved to Zuni. They pursued an excavation program and produced a laudable record of rapid publication. By the beginning of the 1960s, the Mogollon-culture concept had become so widely accepted that, at least at Vernon, it had become passe, Culture History, 1963-1965 65 and the fuss associated with it had become a quaint relic of a bygone era in southwestern archaeology, like the riding of a mule. The use of all cultural labels and attendant taxonomic controversies shortly would be abandoned in favor of examining anthropologically relevant questions according to what were perceived to be rigorous procedures of scientific investigation. Vernon would become a training camp for processual archaeologists; Grasshopper also would give birth to an emerging processual archaeology. There was no field school in 1961, as Haury and Thompson pondered where to go next after Point of Pines ended. We turn next to the story of the transitional year before the field school settled at Grasshopper. Transitional Year: The Field...


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