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2 18 Grasshopper in the Archaeological Imagination Archaeology inherits the earth; most places contain the debris and cradle the memory of innumerable past events.-David Lowenthal (1985:238) In this chapter, we catalog the important factors that contributed to archaeology in Arizona and profoundly influenced Field School research. There is much in the conduct of archaeology that is art and much that is subjective, and this is seen perhaps most clearly in fieldwork. Archaeological fieldwork is a unique and compelling mixture of place, personnel , and a special sense of purpose that structures thought and action, and it is unlike data collection in any other science. Archaeology takes place in a landscape of the mind, a landscape of ideas, emotions, and thought as important in structuring action as the character of the physicallandscape . Yet it was the landscape that first orchestrated the archaeology of ancient Arizona. Therefore, we must begin by placing Grasshopper in the context of the alluring and wild Southwest, the Southwest of the archaeological imagination-that rich mosaic of places, people, and climate that created a particular breed of archaeologist and a particular kind of archaeology. We then move on to discuss Grasshopper in its several guises-as part of a unique topographic and cultural region, as a particular place on the landscape, and as a camp. Last, we characterize the rich archaeological record of Grasshopper Pueblo and the Grasshopper region. In doing so, we attempt to demonstrate "that neither a people nor a landscape is truly understandable except in terms of the other" (Hinsley 1996:205). The Southwest, Hinsley goes on to write, "invites and demands a personal commitment beyond military conquest, political sovereignty, or legal ownership. Belonging must be dirt-deep, with the bones of the dead." The American Southwest: The Allure of Wilderness Although much denigrated by contemporary archaeologists, the image of the archaeologist-as-explorer so romanticized in Steven Spielberg films was not a fiction. The nineteenth-century Southwest was a challenging and sometimes dangerous place, and only the strongest-willed, most robust and determined archaeologists survived. It was also a glorious land, a place of slick-rock canyons, flint-sharp skies, and towering cloud masses that has inspired writers and artists from Georgia O'Keeffe to Tony Hillerman. Jesse Jennings describes the romantic allure of the Southwest well (Jennings 1994). Arriving in Santa Fe in 1919 as a boy, he went about "gawking and soaking up the aura of romance and learning -never to be forgotten -that indefinable allure of the Southwest, a blend of climate, people, blue sky, architecture, the ever-present piiion and pine clad mountains, the spicy tang of sage and cedar, and the sweet perfume of burning piiion." Such romantic memories mask the unforgiving side of the land. The rain falls not often enough or, perversely, falls too much. Thunderstorms are accompanied by dangerous lightning that sparks wildfires and destructive hail that hammers crops flat. Flash floods tear up cornfields and destroy homes and barns. Rivers flood, burying the wagons and cars of those who foolishly attempt to cross them in full spate. Yet the destructive power of nature is less evident in the Southwest than in the Midwest's tornadoes or the southern coast's hurricanes. To the easterner used to shades of green, softly blurred skies, and moist air, the Southwest could be frighteningly unfamiliar. The first lesson to be learned was simple-adjust rather than fight, and take the land on its own terms. The people are an important part of the Southwest's allure, and the American Indian has fascinated nonwesterners since the days of the dime novel and the Wild West show. The easterner arriving in Arizona encountered , often for the first time, living Native Americans who were as exotic as the land. A. V. Kidder (1960:5) wrote of his first trip west on his way to survey the cliff-dwelling country with Sylvanus Morley for the Archaeological Institute of America. His naive wording reflects Grasshopper in the Archaeological Imagination 19 the year-1907, not the politically correct 1990s-but his admiration is clear: "Yet another feature of this day of new impressions; the Indians . We cut a corner of New Mexico and came through a portion of the Jicarilla Apache reservation. There they were, teepees and all, squaws with red and yellow dresses and leather leggings and long black hair, bucks in sombreros on little switchy-tailed horses. Small brown children waved to us from the open flaps of the teepees. It...


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