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Introductions to the Authors 1. Introduction to Ovid’s Epistles [Heroides] 1. The intention of this work is to reproach men and women held captive by foolish and illicit love. 2. Its subject matter is heroes and ladies. 3. It is classified under ethics, which is a teacher of manners and an eradicator of faults. 4. In this first epistle Penelope is praised for maintaining her lawful love, and, by contrast, those who do not do the same are reproached. 5. Ulysses was one of the Greeks who had come to lay waste to Troy. 6. And because he had offended the gods in many ways there, when he was going to return to his country, he wandered seven years. 7. But Penelope, his wife, although she was tempted to remarry by very many suitors, spurned them all out of desire for her husband alone. 8. Since she did not know where he was, she sends this epistle to him, to be delivered to him if he could be found. 2. Again [Introduction to Ovid’s Epistles] 1. One should know that in Rome Ovid was the first to have written epistles, not by imitating anyone of the Romans, of whom namely no poet had as yet written epistles, but by imitating a certain Greek whose epistles he had seen. 2. Moreover, “epistle” means “sent over,” because it “sends” words “over.” 3. The subject matter of Ovid in this work is as much the senders as those to whom the epistles are sent. 4. His intention is to commend lawful marriage or love, and he deals with love specifically according to this threefold typology, namely, lawful, illicit, and foolish love: lawful love through Penelope [Her. 1]; illicit love through Canace [Her. 11]; and foolish love through Phyllis [Her. 2]. 5. Yet he inserts these two parts, namely of foolish and of illicit love, not for their own sake, but for the sake of praising that third part, and so by commending lawful love, he reproaches foolish and illicit love. 6. He is classified under ethics because he is an instructor of good manners and an eradicator of bad. 7. The final cause is such that, after the benefit that comes from lawful love has been seen, and after the misfortunes that usually proceed from foolish and illicit love have been seen, we avoid each of the latter and cleave to virtuous love alone. 8. So in this first epistle the intention of the sender Penelope is to set aside the objections that could be made against her by Ulysses, and that he hasten to return, and she points out at home the many    Accessus ad auctores Translation   27 diutine more ostendit incommoditates. 9. Et iste Vlixes in obsidione Troie in multis deos offenderat; post destructionem Troie uolens redire in patriam suam septem annis errauit in mari. 10. Cuius uxor Penolopes inuiolabiliter conseruans copulam ob ipsius gratiam multos se sepe petentes aspernabatur, et ignorans ubi sit, scripsit ei hanc epistolam, que si alicubi inueniatur ipsi tribuatur. 11. Et dicit Ouidius in persona Penolopes: “O Vlixe hanc salutem uel hanc epistolam mittit tibi Pen(olope). Ipsa dico assidue perseuerans in tuo amore; tibi dico lento in reditu.” 3. ACCESSVS PRVDENTII Phsicomachie 1. Prudentius genere Terraconensis esse dicitur. 2. Terraconia quedam fuit regio serpentibus inhabitabilis, modo autem habitabilis facta. 3. Studuit autem et ad tantum peruenit honorem, ut ter consulatus ascenderet dignitatem . 4. Iam fidem recipiens et factus Christianus plurimos [fol. 1va25 | fol.  1vb1] libros composuit de diuinitate. 5. Ad quorundam differentiam scripsit Phichomachiam, id est de pugna anime: psiche anima, machia pugna dicitur. 6. Intentio eius est istam inuisibilem rem nobis facere uisibilem, quia quod oculis subiacet facilius uidetur quam quod auditur. 7. Principalis materia est Abram, secunda secularia, omne quod introducitur. 8. Cui autem parti philosophie subponatur non dubitatur quia ethice subponitur. 9. Absque his multa aput ueteres solebant inquiri, scilicet “quis, quid, ubi, quibus auxiliis, cur, quomodo, quando.” 10. His autem positis utpote non adeo necesariis, tria quorundam more magistrorum, scilicet ea que proposuimus, inquiruntur. 11. Titulus uero a nomine Titan dicitur, quia sicut hinc uniuersa illuminantur , sic per titulum subsequens opus manifestatur. 12. “Incipit,” id est intus capit, “Liber Aurelii Prudentii.” 13. Liber dicitur a liberando uel a librando, liberando quia nos legendo liberat ab errore, librando quia intentionem cum materia librat, et materiam cum intentione, quia si scriberet de monte uel huiusmodi nihil esset ad hanc rem. [fol. 1vb25 | fol. 2ra1] 14. Solebant autem philosophi alicuius auspicati nomine...


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Subject Headings

  • Latin literature, Medieval and modern.
  • Criticism -- History -- To 1500.
  • Classical literature -- Study and teaching -- History -- To 1500.
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