restricted access Appendix: Country Values for the Chronological Age of National Political Institutions and the Generational Age of the Top National Political Leadership
In lieu of an abstract, here is a brief excerpt of the content:

Appendix: Country Values for the Chronological Age of National Political Institutions and the Generational Age of the Top National Political Leadership Year of Number of Leaders Constitution in Current Year of Effective at Constitutional Independence End of 1985 Period United States 1776 1787 39 Canada 1867 1867 17 Cuba 1901 1959 Haiti 1840 1957 2 Dominican Republic 1844 1966 3 Jamaica 1962 1962 5 Trinidad and Tobago 1962 1962 2 Barbados 1966 1966 3 Mexico 1820 1917 14 Guatemala 1813 1983 Honduras 1838 1982 EI Salvador 1838 1983 I Nicaragua 1838 1979 I Costa Rica 1838 1949 8 Panama 1903 1972 2 Colombia 1819 1958 7 Venezuela 1830 1958 6 Guyana 1966 1966 2 Ecuador 1830 1978 3 Peru 1821 1980 2 Brazil 1822 1984 Bolivia 1825 1982 Paraguay 1811 1967 Chile 1818 1980 Argentina 1816 1983 Uruguay 1828 1984 I United Kingdom 1775 1832 20 Ireland 1921 1937 7 Netherlands 1775 1814 25 Belgium 1831 1831 33 Luxembourg 1890 1868 13 France 1775 1958 4 Switzerland 1775 1874 61 Spain 1775 1978 2 Portugal 1775 1976 2 West Germany 1871' 1949 6 (continued) 163 164 Appendix Year of Number of Leaders Constitution in Current Year of Effective at Constitutional Independence End of 1985 Period East Germany 1871" 1949 2 Poland 1918 1952 6 Austria 1775 1945 7 Hungary 1918 1949 3 Czechoslovakia 1918 1948 4 Italy 1861" 1948 16 Malta 1964 1964 3 Albania 1912 1946 2 Yugoslavia 1878 1946 6 Greece 1830 1975 2 Cyprus 1960 1960 2 Bulgaria 1908 1947 4 Rumania 1878 1948 2 Soviet Union 1775 1936 8 Finland 1918 1919 38 Sweden 1775 1809 26 Norway 1905 1814 27 Denmark 1775 1849 27 Iceland 1918 1944 13 Gambia 1965 1965 Mali 1960 1974 Senegal 1960 1963 2 Benin 1960 1977 Mauritania 1960 1984 Niger 1960 1974 Ivory Coast 1960 1960 Guinea 1958 1984 Burkina Faso 1960 1983 Liberia 1847 1980 Sierra Leone 1961 1978 2 Ghana 1957 1981 Togo 1960 1980 1 Cameroon 1960 1961 2 Nigeria 1960 1984 Gabon 1960 1960 2 Central African Republic 1960 1981 Chad 1960 1982 Congo 1960 1979 Zaire 1960 1965 Uganda 1962 1985 Kenya 1963 1963 2 Tanzania 1961 1965 Burundi 1962 1976 Rwanda 1962 1978 Somalia 1960 1979 Ethiopia 1775 1977 Appendix 165 Year of Number of Leaders Constitution in Current Year of Effective at Constitutional Independence End of 1985 Period Angola 1975" 1975 2 Mozambique 1975" 1975 Zambia 1964 1964 Zimbabwe 1980' 1980 Malawi 1964 1966 I South Africa 1910 1910 3 Lesotho 1966 1966 I Botswana 1966 1965 2 Madagascar 1960 1975 1 Mauritius 1968 1968 3 Morocco 1956 1956 2 Algeria 1962 1979 Tunisia 1956 1959 Libya 1951 1977 Sudan 1956 1985 Iran 1775 1981 Turkey 1775 1982 Iraq 1932 1970 2 Egypt 1922 1971 2 Syria 1943 1973 Lebanon 1943 1926 10 Jordan 1946 1951 1 Israel 1948 1948 6 Saudi Arabia 1925 1962 3 Yemen 1918 1974 3 Yemen (PDR) 1967 1985 1 Kuwait 1961 1961 2 Afghanistan 1919" 1978 I China 1775 1954 2 Mongolia 1921 1960 2 Taiwan 1949 1950 3 North Korea 1945 1948 South Korea 1945 1980 Japan 1775 1947 14 India 1947 1950 5 Pakistan 1947 1973 2 Bangladesh 1972 1983 Burma 1948 1974 2 Sri Lanka 1947 1948 7 Maldive Islands 1965 1968 Nepal 1775 1962 2 Thailand 1775 1979 Kampuchea 1954 1981 Laos 1954 1975 Vietnam 1954 1976 Malaysia 1957 1957 4 (continued) 166 Appendix Year of Number of Leaders Constitution in Current Year of Effective at Constitutional Independence End of 1985 Period Singapore 1965 1965 1 Philippines 1946 1973 I Indonesia 1949 1949 2 Australia 1901 1900 23 Papua New Guinea 1975' 1975 3 New Zealand 1907 1852 19 Note: Countries are listed in the order used in Taylor and Jodice (1983). The two measures of chronological age are based initially on information available in Rustow (1967) and Taylor and Hudson (1972). Modifications are derived from information in the following compendia, as is the count of the number of national political leaders in the constitutional era effective at the end of 1985: Banks (1986); Jackson and Rosberg (l982b, 288-304); Spuler (1953); and Spuler, Allen, and Saunders (1977). Materials from these compendia were supplemented by data from the following yearbooks: Europa Yearbook (London: Europa Publications, various years); Information Please Almanac, Atlas and Yearbook, 40th ed. (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1987); Keesing's Contemporary Archives (London: Longman's Group, various years); The Statesman's Yearbook (New York: St. Martin's Press, various years). •Change from...


pdf

Subject Headings

  • Legitimacy of governments.
  • Power (Social sciences).
  • Political development.
  • You have access to this content
  • Free sample
  • Open Access
  • Restricted Access