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161 10 Other Artifact Assemblages Macy O’Hearn and Sarah Ward Other artifact assemblages include excavated materials that do not fall into the previously discussed categories. These objects range in function from production by-products to artifacts with utilitarian and possibly recreational and symbolic uses. A total of 277 miscellaneous artifacts (table 10.1) were recovered during the 2003 and 2005 field seasons at the Corey site. Materials discussed in this chapter are temper for ceramics, calcite, daub, ceramic pipe fragments, possible gaming pieces, and very low-frequency oddities such as drilled stones, petrified wood, and a Herkimer diamond. Temper (n=122) The most numerous type of miscellaneous material found at the Corey site is stone temper (figure 10.1), a raw material crushed and mixed with clay in the production of ceramics to improve stability during the firing process. Recovered chunks of white and off-white granitic stone closely match temper materials seen in the petrographic analysis of Corey ceramics , identified as quartz monzonite and feldspar (see chapter 4). The recovered chunks (n=122) thus appear to be discarded temper, with specimens ranging in weight from less than 1 to 66 grams, for a total of 707 grams. These materials were evenly distributed between the midden area (379 grams) and the shorthouse (328 grams). The identified temper is available in local glacial tills (Lajewski, Patterson, and Callien 2003). Calcite (n=104) Chalky calcite (CaCo3) or calcium carbonate is found in association with limestone and chert deposits (Boggs 2006). A total of 18 pieces of calcite 162 | macy o’hearn and sarah ward were recovered from the site. The collection weighs 206 grams, with individual fragments ranging from 1 to 72 grams. Calcite was recovered from both midden and shorthouse contexts. The midden area, however, contains a higher percentage of calcite fragments (n=91, 87.5 percent) than the shorthouse (n=13, 12.5 percent). Calcite could be used as a white pigment or low-hardness abrasive. There are references in the Great Lakes to soaking dry corn in lime water with calcium carbonate dissolved in it, a process that softens corn for use and releases vitamin B3, which otherwise remains bound in the grain. The Cayuga used wood ash and ash sifter baskets to make a lime or weak lye for soaking their corn (Parker 1994 [1910], 51, 69; Waugh 1973 [1916], 62), a practice presently conducted by Dan Hill at the Cayuga-SHARE Farm in Union Springs, New York. Lye solutions were also used to soak bitternut hickory to leach its bitter tannins (Parker 1994 [1910], 99–101; Waugh 1973 [1916], 122). The exact function of calcite at the site is unknown. Calcite may have been procured at the Onondaga Escarpment chert quarries in coordination with the collection of high-quality cherts (chapters 5 and 6) (Lajewski, Patterson, and Callien 2003). Daub (n=32) Daub is unfired and untempered clay often used in coordination with sticks and branches. A total of 32 daub fragments were found at the site, T A B L E 10 . 1 . Frequencies of miscellaneous artifacts Miscellaneous artifact type Frequency Temper 122 Calcite 104 Daub 32 Ceramic pipe fragments 9 Gaming pieces? 6 Drilled stones 2 Petrified wood 1 Herkimer diamond 1 Total 277 Other Artifact Assemblages | 163 weighing approximately 123 grams and ranging between 1 and 17 grams. All daub fragments were recovered as a diffuse scatter across ten excavation units of the shorthouse area. Use of the wattle-and-daub technique for house construction has been documented among Native American groups in the southeastern United States, including the Cherokees and Creeks (Pavao-Zuckerman 2007; Sears 1955), in structures that differ from Haudenosaunee shorthouse or longhouse construction techniques (Driver and Massey 1957). Despite the routine use of the term wattle-anddaub construction by archaeologists, the archaeological evidence of daub use on structures in the eastern US woodlands is rare (Knight 2007). The purpose of daub at the Corey site remains undetermined. The recovered amount is probably not enough to represent a major aspect of shorthouse construction, unless it was used in a limited way to line the interior roof for fire protection, a technique known among Mississippian peoples in the southeastern United States (Brennan 2007). Ceramic Pipe Fragments (n=9) A total of 9 decorated and undecorated ceramic pipe fragments were recovered (figure 10.1b). These materials were equally divided between midden and shorthouse contexts, with 4 pipe fragments spread across 3 units of the midden and 5...

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Additional Information

ISBN
9780815653349
Related ISBN
9780815634058
MARC Record
OCLC
918511079
Pages
288
Launched on MUSE
2015-08-15
Language
English
Open Access
No
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