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NOTES INTRODUCTION 1. Laurence Olivier, On Acting (London: Hodder and Stoughton, Sceptre edition , 1987), 52. 2. Glenn Collins, "Kevin Kline Dons Another Crown," New York Times, July I, 1984. 3. Only a few major theatres keep promptbooks. The Royal Shakespeare Company does, the Royal National Theatre keeps some, and the New York Shakespeare Festival has begun to document major productions with videotapes. The practice is by no means uniform in the United States or Great Britain. 4. See E. W. Roessler, The Soliloquy in German Drama (New York: Columbia University Press, 1915), 3. 5. An actor can use apostrophe to address the speech to gods, absent persons, natural forces, or parts of the body, as Bernard Beckerman explained in Shakespeare at the Globe (New York: Collier-Macmillan, 1962), 84. The performance energies are thus sent "outward," however, not necessarily to spectators. 6. I must hasten to state that Derek Jacobi's Hamlet on tour is an exception to this. Furthermore, Jacobi's soliloquies on the 1980 BBC Hamlet were different from his stage performance of them. See chapter 5. 7. Michael Goldman, "The Future of Performance Criticism," presentation at the Shakespeare Association of America meeting, Seattle, Washington, April II, 1987. 8. In this book I have excluded the shorter solo "asides," (speeches of two to eight lines). They reinforce the character's soliloquizing tendencies rather than define them and rarely offer more than one "beat" of meaning or emotion, whereas soliloquies develop several thoughts and offer more meat for the actor. See Maurice Charney, "Asides, Soliloquies, and Offstage Speech in Hamlet: Implications for Staging," in Shakespeare and the Sense of Performance, ed. Marvin Thompson and Ruth Thompson (London: Associated University Presses, 1989). 9. For consistency, all line citations are taken from G. Blakemore Evans, ed., 247 The Riverside Shakespeare (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1974). If a given production changed the order of the soliloquies (most productions use the Second Quarto and First Folio sequencing of "0, what a rogue," shortly preceding "To be, or not to be") or the wording in them ("sullied" or "solid" instead of "sallied "), that choice was noted. If a soliloquy was excluded, the omission is usually discussed in the chapter. 10. See, for example, Wolfgang Clemen's Shakespeare's Soliloquies (London: Methuen, 1987). Clemen mentions performance in the introduction to his book (1-12), but the discussion is neither thorough nor convincing. He does present several literary readings of selected soliloquies in nonspecific and nontheatrical contexts. See also William E. McDonnell, "The Shakespearean Soliloquy: A Problem of Focus," Text and Performance Quarterly 10 (1990): 227-34. McDonnell decrees which soliloquies are direct-addressed, inwardly addressed, or "debatable ," offering for evidence videotaped versions of plays and his own close reading . He quite accurately clarifies that his conclusions are his opinions as opposed to being based on stage practice. II. Peter Brook, The Empty Space (New York: Avon, 1969), 16. 12. See John Barton, "Set Speeches and Soliloquies," in Playing Shakespeare (London: Methuen, 1984), 94. In a workshop at the Jerusalem Theatre Conference on June I, 1988, Barton demonstrated with Royal Shakespeare Company actors Estelle Kohler and Harriet Walters that what are technically "monologues" (i.e., Katherine's banquet speech in The Taming of the Shrew) should be largely shared with an audience. He said, "It [the set speech delivered to oneself] can go on for a few lines and then there is a law of diminishing returns." Barton clearly saw monologues and soliloquies as requiring the same performance mode. 13. A six-year endeavor, from 1979 to 1985, the series used grants from the Exxon Corporation, the Metropolitan Life Insurance Company, and Morgan Guaranty Trust Company of New York. 14. An entire journal, Shakespeare Bulletin, devotes pages to these "academic reviews," productions evaluated by university professors. 15. Tyrone Guthrie, A Life in the Theatre (London: Columbus Books, 1960), 187. 16. Sally Beauman, The Royal Shakespeare Company: A History of Ten Decades (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1982), 239. 17. See Beauman, chapters 10 and II, 236-87. 18. Guthrie, 124. 19. Ralph Berry, "Hamlet and the Audience," in Shakespeare and the Sense of Performance, ed. Marvin Thompson and Ruth Thompson (London: Associated University Presses, 1989), 24. 248 Notes to Pages xvi-xviii 20. Laurence Olivier, quoted in an article by Michael Billington, Manchester Guardian Weekly, July 23, 1989. 21. John A. Mills, Hamlet Onstage (London: Greenwood Press, 1985), 180. 22. Guthrie, 184-88. 23. Brook, 96ff. 24. During this time, there were upwards of twenty summer or year...


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