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absolutism, 88, 90–91 accountability: and democratic deficit, 117–18, 123; liberal-individualist, 152 acquiscommunitaire(EUlaw),61–62,149 Adenauer, Konrad, 42, 53, 55–56 Al-Andalus, 100 Albania, 96, 100 Albright, Madeleine, 20 Al Qaeda, 16, 142 Ambedkar, B. R., 104, 105 ambiguity, themes of, in European project , 52–65. See also specific ambiguities American Enlightenment, 99 American federalism. See United States, and federalism Amery, L. S., 125 Andalusia, 74 Anderson, Perry, 75 anti-Semitism: and ethnic nationalism, 38–43, 91, 92, 97; versus medieval Judaeophobia, 37–41 Aristotle, 126, 164, 176 Ashton, Baroness Catherine Margaret, 125 Asia: EU membership eligibility, and geography, 158–59; and Western “honorary members,” 9, 12. See also China; India; Japan Asia Minor, 158–59 “assimilation” concept, 97 Atatürk, Kemal, 173–74, 175 Auden, W. H., 123 Austria: accession into EU, 61, 145; and Iraq War, 48; and nationalism, 7, 51; Pan-European Movement launched by, 30; and World War I, 78, 173 Austria-Hungary land empire, 95, 173 authoritarianism: and “assimilation,” 97; and Communism, 115, 150; versus democracy, 157; and pluralism, 171–72 authority: moral, 20, 103, 116; political (see political authority) autistic consumerism, 129, 132, 134 autocracy, 162–63 autonomy, internal, 121 autonomy, political: ethnicity and identity , 69, 71, 73, 74, 76; and identity assumptions, 166 Averroës (Ibn Rushd), 164, 176 balance of power (European), 9, 12 Balkans, 4, 86, 96, 154, 168 Balkan wars, 48 “Ballad of East and West, The” (Kipling), 1, 2, 19, 100, 176 Barroso, José Manuel, 27 Basques, 65, 72, 74 Bear Stearns, 17 Beck, Ulrich, 24 Beer, Samuel, 135 Belarus, 35, 41, 154, 172 Belgium: ethnicity and identity, 55, 72–73; in Europe of the Six, 35; governance and authority, 72–73, 116, 123; and Iraq War, 48; and Islamophobia , 90; and nationalism, 51 189 INDEX  190 INDEX Belloc, Hilaire, 6 Berlin Wall, fall of, 1, 13, 57, 145 Berlusconi, Silvio, 51 Bin Laden, Osama, 142 Blair, Tony, 130, 138, 153, 164 Bobbitt, Philip, 2 Bologna Process, 44 Bolshevik Revolution, 13, 143, 163, 171 Bosnia-Herzegovina, 48, 72, 96, 100 boundaries: integration effect on, 145; internal versus external, 144–45, 158–60; shifts in, and EU membership , 142, 158–60; surmounting of, as EU goal, 143–45; and unraveling of nation-state, 78. See also enlargements , EU Brandt, Willy, 57 Braudel, Fernand, 163, 164 Brazil, 16, 20, 146 Brezhnev, Leonid, 160 Briand, Aristide, 30 BRICS, 16 British Communist Party, 10 British Empire, 5, 14, 17, 70, 99, 155 British Enlightenment, 99 British state. See United Kingdom Brown, Gordon, 81, 91 Bulgaria, 3, 100, 150, 168, 173 Burke, Edmund, 99 Burnham, James, 53 Bush, George W., 21, 48, 125; and war on terror, 1, 15–16 Byzantium, 3, 160, 165–66, 169 Caldwell, Christopher, 92–93 capitalism: and global market, 14–16, 134; and laissez-faire, 11; versus postwar Communism, 12–13; “Rhenish” versus Anglo-American, 19; and state invervention, 11 capitalism, untamed, 14, 18, 49, 80, 133–34, 140 Carolingian Europe, 61, 150 Catalonia, 65, 72, 74 Catholicism: and EU Constituonal Treaty negotiations, 163–64; and founding of European Community, 55–56; gulf with Orthodox Christianity , 165–66; and identity, 76, 95, 96, 130; influence on “social market” economy, 11 Caucasus, 156 Central Bank. See European Central Bank centralism, 73–76, 139 Chan, Ronnie, 20 Chauvin, Nicolas, 144 China: climate change initiatives, 110; “Eastern” identity of, historically, 4–5, 9; economic model, 13, 20; economic projection (2025), 16–17; in global marketplace, 2, 16, 22; and “hard” power, 155 Chirac, Jacques, 88, 148 Christian Democratic Party, 56 Christianity: decline of, in Europe, 99; and identity, 3, 37–38, 95, 96; influence on shaping of Europe, 163, 164; issue of, in EU Constitutional Treaty negotiations, 164 Christianity, Orthodox: gulf with Catholic and Protestant Christianity, 165–66 citizenship: and globalization, 142; republican conception of, 135, 152 civic virtue, 127, 132, 135 civilization and territory, ambiguity in, 61–63, 66, 141–77; and boundaries, 78, 142, 143–45, 158–60; “clash of civilizations,” 154; and Europe of the mind, 147, 153, 156, 163, 170, 174; evolution in, and identity, 142–43, 166–67; and global citizenship, 142; integration effect on boundaries, 191 INDEX 145; and religion, 163–66; “soft” power versus “hard” power, 155–56, 158; and “unity in diversity” goal, 67, 77, 116, 138, 143, 169, 175. See also enlargements, EU Civil War, U.S., 120, 126, 130–31, 132, 142 civil wars, English, 132, 135 civil wars, European, 7–8, 22, 29, 84 “clash of...

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