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A Note on Religious Terms Some of the intricacies of southern religion were instrumental in shaping how particular groups of white southerners reacted to organized labor and the liberal political culture that buoyed the CIO. To help readers interested in this topic but unfamiliar with some of the terms that represent important differences within southern evangelical Protestantism, we include these brief descriptions of how we have used the terms in this book. These definitions are drawn from entries in Encyclopedia of Religion in the South, 2nd edition, edited by Samuel S. Hill and Charles H. Lippy (Macon, Ga.: Mercer University Press, 2005). Dispensationalism: Dispensationalists believe that history is divided into seven epochs, or dispensations, and that mankind is living in the sixth epoch, which will soon end when Christ lifts up the saved in the Rapture before returning to Earth to lead the final battle against Satan. This belief relies heavily on apocalyptic Biblical prophecy in the books of Daniel and Revelation and became influential in Fundamentalist circles in the Depression-era South. Fundamentalism: With origins in the late-nineteenth-century urban North, Fundamentalism was a self-imposed label aimed at defending traditional orthodox beliefs against newly emerging modernist theology and liberal trends in Protestant churches. Promulgated by such revivalists as Dwight L. Moody and Billy Sunday as well as the corporate-sponsored publication of a series of booklets called The Fundamentals between 1910 and 1915, Fundamentalism took on greater urgency in the South in the 1930s, when the region began to experience many of the social changes that had challenged northern Protestant churches. Following the founding of the National Association of Evangelicals during World War II, many Fundamentalists began adopting the label “Evangelical.” Hardshell (Primitive) Baptists: There are many smaller offshoots of Baptist faith arising from disputes in the nineteenth century. Hardshell, or Primitive, Baptists hold to a conservative belief in predestination and thus reject missionary societies and other “human inventions” that were not part of the original churches or “warranted from the word of God.” Holiness Churches: This church movement grew out of nineteenth-century Methodism’s belief that a person reborn in Christianity should strive toward perfection and a “second blessing” of sanctification. Eventually, elements of the xiv A Note on Religious Terms Holiness movement began to reach beyond Methodism, especially in the Midwest and the South. When the Methodist Episcopal Church, South, tried to rein in Holiness advocates in the 1890s, many separated and formed more than twenty new religious groups. Among these were the Church of the Nazarene, the Pentecostal Holiness Church, and the two Church of God groups. After 1906, Pentecostalism further divided Holiness churches. Pentecostalism: Pentecostalism grew out of the Holiness movement, but its advocates sought evidence of a more profound spiritual awakening than the second blessing of sanctification. Associated with speaking in tongues as a “sign gift” or physical evidence of the Holy Spirit’s endowment, Pentecostalism spread rapidly following a series of revival meetings in Los Angeles in 1906. Among the most influential Pentecostal churches in the South were the Church of God (Cleveland, Tennessee), the Assemblies of God, and the African-American Church of God in Christ. Pentecostalism achieved a new level of acceptance in the 1940s, when the National Association of Evangelicals included Pentecostal churches. Premillennial/Postmillennial: Millennialism derives from a belief that history will culminate in a thousand-year golden age (hence, millennialism) associated with the Second Coming of Christ. Premillennialists believe that the golden age will occur only after the Second Coming; postmillennialists believe that the Second Coming will follow immediately after the golden age. Where one stood on this issue took on increased importance in the twentieth-century South as Millennialism became entangled with Fundamentalist-Modernist debates and such movements as dispensationalism and the Social Gospel. Rapture: An important term in dispensational premillennial eschatology, Rapture refers to the lifting up of believers to be with Christ in Heaven. In dispensational theology, the Rapture precedes a period known as the Great Tribulation, which then ushers in the Second Coming of Christ and millennial period of peace. Struggle for the Soul of the Postwar South ...


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