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Part One Speaking Back, Critiquing the Dominant Discourse …colonizing males constructed Indian women’s bodies, both symbolically and materially, as a site to effect territorial and political conquest[;]women constructed and used their bodies, both symbolically and materially, as instruments of opposition, resistance, and subversion of colonial domination. “Malinche, Calafia y Toypurina” “The Political Economy of Nineteenth Century Stereotypes of Californianas ” (1990) “Malinche, Calafia y Toypurina: Of Myths, Monsters and Embodied History” (2005) “The Political Economy of the Nineteenth-Century Stereotypes” and “Malinche, Calafia y Toypurina” stand as bookends of sorts.Written over a decade apart, the two articles are brought together here because of their strong critiques of dominant discourses, and the bold way in which both essays map the role of political economy in constructing the very stereotypes that feed popular (white) culture. 36 Three Decades of Engendering History First presented at the “Mexicana/Chicana Women’s History International Symposium” in Santa Monica, California (1982), “Political Economy” represents some of Dr. Castañeda’s earliest published work. As with other essays presented at that symposium, the work has proven foundational . In it Dr. Castañeda maps the power of gendered stereotypes in fueling Manifest Destiny and corollary nineteenth-century ideologies. By focusing on three proponents of Manifest Destiny: Richard Henry Dana, Thomas Jefferson Farnham, and Alfred Robinson, she demonstrates how stereotypes of Californianas shifted as the socio-political and economic needs of Euro-Americans shifted over time; what remained and remains consistent, is the manner in which the stereotypes functioned to negate the lived realities and histories of nineteenth-century Mexicanas and Californianas not only in their own time, but in the histories produced by the Euro-American male historians who followed them. Written almost two decades later, “Malinche, Calafia y Toypurina” brings textual analysis back to the Spanish colonial era and forward into our own time. Mapping the development of colonial stereotypes of indigenous women, Castañeda argues that popular literature, particularly the novelas de caballería (novels of chivalry) fed the colonial project, justifying violence against indigenous women, communities, and peoples. Thus the popular fictions written and circulated of Calafia, preceded the “myth and paradigm of the historical Malinche,” but served a similar function, normalizing conquest in the mind of the colonizer, while eroticizing and demonizing the bodies of indigenous women. Critical to this later article, as to all of Castañeda’s later work, is her attention to resistance and the many ways that indigenous and mestiza women have resisted colonial domination. Women resisted with their bodies, in dayto -day practices, and in overt uprisings. In this context, renowned women such as Toypurina are part of a long and rich history of indigenous women’s resistance. ...

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