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205 Notes 1. Sue Sephus,“I Have Been to School,” Freedom’s Journal,August 24, 1964, 2, Box 98, Folder 9, The Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee Records (hereafter, SNCC-King), 1959–1972, The Martin Luther King Jr. Center for Nonviolent Social Change,Atlanta, GA (hereafter, King Center); Affidavits from Ruleville appear in Box 11, Folder 37 of the Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party Papers (MFDP Papers), King Center; Charles Cobb,“Charlie Cobb: The Mississippi Educational Wasteland,” Box 2, Folder 13, MFDP Papers; and Joyce Brown,“Houses of Liberty,” Box 14, Folder 4, MFDP Papers. For more on Mississippi public schools, see Charles C. Bolton, The Hardest Deal of All: The Battle Over School Integration in Mississippi, 1870–1980 (Jackson, MS: University Press of Mississippi, 2007). 2.Albert Evans,“Why I Deserve Freedom,” Student Voice of True Light, July 20, 1964, Box 2, Folder 3, in Ellin (Joseph and Nancy) Freedom Summer Collection (hereafter, Ellin Papers), The University of Southern Mississippi Historical Manuscripts Collection, Hattiesburg, MS (hereafter, USM). 3.“Freedom School Report,” July 10, 1964, Box 6, Folder 3, Staughton and Alice Lynd Papers (hereafter, Lynd Papers), Kent State University Libraries Special Collections and Archives, Kent, OH. 4.Vernon Lane Wharton, The Negro in Mississippi, 1865–1890 (New York: Harper & Row, 1947), 182. 5.Wharton, The Negro in Mississippi, 181–198; Bradley G. Bond, ed., Mississippi: A Documentary History (Jackson, MS: University Press of Mississippi, 2003), especially 125–145; and Nicholas Lemann, Redemption: The Last Battle of the Civil War (New York: Farrar, Straus, and Giroux, 2006). 6. For more on the end of Reconstruction, see W. E. B. Du Bois, Black Reconstruction in America: An Essay Toward a History of the Part Which Black Folk Played in the Attempt to Reconstruct Democracy in America, 1860–1880 (New York: Russell & Russell, 1935); C.Vann Woodward, Reunion and Reaction: The Compromise of 1877 and the End of Reconstruction (New York: Oxford University Press, 1951); and Eric Foner, Reconstruction: America’s Unfinished Revolution, 1863–1877 (New York: Harper & Row, Publishers, 1988). The phrase “Jim Crow” is derived from a minstrel show character in the nineteenth century. Minstrel show performers were often whites who painted their faces black for on-stage stereotypical performances of African Americans. For more on African Notes 206 American life in Jim Crow Mississippi, see Neil R. McMillen, Dark Journey: Black Mississippians in the Age of Jim Crow (Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press, 1990). 7. Sir Harry Johnson, The Negro in the New World (New York: Johnson Reprint Corporation, 1969, orig., 1910), 440–445. For more on the ways African American slaves learned to read and write, see Heather Williams, Self-Taught: African American Education in Slavery and Freedom (Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 2005); and Janet Sharp Hermann, The Pursuit of a Dream (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1981). 8. For more on black Mississippians’ responses to education during and immediately after the Civil War, see Christopher Span, From Cotton Field to Schoolhouse: African American Education in Mississippi, 1862–1875 (Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 2009). For more on Reconstruction-era black independent schools, see Christopher M. Span,“Alternative Pedagogy: The Rise of the Private Black Academy in Early Postbellum Mississippi, 1862–1870” in Chartered Schools: Two Hundred Years of Independent Academies in the United States, 1727–1925, ed. Nancy Beadie and Kim Tolley (New York: RoutledgeFalmer, 2002). 9.“Mississippi School Law,” Hinds County Gazette,April 20, 1870, 1; Stuart Grayson Noble, Forty Years of the Public Schools in Mississippi, With Special Reference to the Education of the Negro (New York: AMS Press, 1918); Bolton, The Hardest Deal of All, especially 3–9; and Span, From Cotton Field to Schoolhouse, especially 117–176. 10. Impeachment Trial of Thomas W. Cardoza, State Superintendent of Education (Jackson, MS: Power & Barksdale, State Printer, 1876), Mississippi Department of Archives and History (hereafter, MDAH), Jackson, MS; and“The Cardoza Articles,” Hinds County Gazette, March 15, 1876, 1. 11. Gathright quoted in Bolton, The Hardest Deal of All, 9. 12. The salaries of teachers in white schools fell as well, but their pay became increasingly disproportionate to that of black schoolteachers. By 1910, white instructors were earning twice the salary of their African American counterparts. See Wharton, The Negro in Mississippi, 246, 249; and Noble, Forty Years of the Public Schools in Mississippi, 141–142. For more on the Redeemers’ response to public education, see C.Vann Woodward, Origins of the New South, 1877–1913 (Baton Rouge, LA: Louisiana State University Press...


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Subject Headings

  • African Americans -- Mississippi -- Social conditions -- 20th century.
  • African Americans -- Civil rights -- Mississippi -- History -- 20th century.
  • Civil rights movements -- Mississippi -- History -- 20th century.
  • Mississippi Freedom Schools.
  • African American students -- Mississippi -- History -- 20th century.
  • Student newspapers and periodicals -- Mississippi -- History -- 20th century.
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