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124 R Clotilde Betances Jaeger (1890–197?), grandniece of Puerto Rico’s foremost nineteenth -century independence leader Ramón Emeterio Betances,wrote articles on a wide range of issues,including the Puerto Rican independence movement,feminism , music, literature, and socialism. Born in San Sebastián, Puerto Rico, she moved to the United States in 1912 to attend Cornell University, from which she graduated with a degree in natural sciences in 1916. In 1923 she moved to New York and served as a teacher at the Beth Jacob Teachers’Seminary of America.She earned a master’s degree from Butler University in Indiana and studied at the Sorbonne in Paris and the University of Salamanca in Spain. Betances Jaeger wrote for a number of periodicals in Puerto Rico, New York, and various Latin American countries. She was a member of the Asociación de Escritores y Periodistas Puertorriqueños (Association of Puerto Rican Writers and Journalists) and reportedly left several unpublished works, including a biographical profile of her famous granduncle, a novel, and several plays.1 María Mas Pozo, whom Betances Jaeger refers to as M. M. Pozo in the essay that follows, was Puerto Rican and wrote for a number of other Hispanic papers in New York in addition to Gráfico. In 1936, she married the Puerto Rican independence leader José Enamorado Cuesta, and in 1973 she published El camino de la violencia (The road to violence), in which she criticized what she saw as the oppressive nature of Christianity and Catholicism as well as American imperialist ventures in Puerto Rico and around the world.2 “La Mujer Nueva” [The New Woman] Clotilde Betances Jaeger Gráfico, June 15, 1929, 10–15. The weekly Gráfico (1926–1931), in which Betances Jaeger’s article appeared, was published by a collective of tobacco workers, writers, and theater artists. It marketed itself to Spanish-language speakers in New York, especially Puerto Ricans, but also Cubans and Dominicans. The magazine promoted a panHispanic worldview and urged its readers to both fight ethnic oppression and claim their rights as American citizens.(With the Jones Act of 1917,Puerto Ricans had been granted citizenship.) A 1927 editorial (written in both Spanish and English) offered the magazine’s mission: “the masses of the American people do believe that the countries South to the Rio Grande are inhabited by Toltecs and Mayas, Cholos and Gauchos, living in savage conditions and incapable of civilized life. These masses forget, or never learned, that there is a distinctive type of culture latent and vivid in Latin America, and that no matter what course the national institutions of North America shall follow regarding our relations, this culture will never perish. . . . GRÁFICO will labor to clarify all misunderstandings that may lead to serious consequences in the public life.”Edited at first byAlberto O’Farrill, an Afro-Cuban actor and playwright, popular for playing in blackface a Cuban named Negrito (Blackie),Gráfico included in its first year many O’Farrill cartoons,which satirized the flapper sometimes through the use of risqué double entendres. In 1929, the magazine—which now included reports of international and national news affecting Spanish-speaking peoples, full pages of photographs , a women’s column, fashion advice, popular culture updates, cartoons, and classified ads—sold for five cents.3 The Puerto Rican economy between 1917 and 1933 suffered from many problems . Among other things, it relied too heavily on too few agricultural products —sugar, coffee, and tobacco. It was dominated economically by absentee American and other corporations, and by 1920, 1.2 percent of the island’s farms controlled 36 percent of the cultivated land. It suffered from increasing unemployment made more acute by increases in population.And the hurricane of 1928 was especially devastating. As a result, many Puerto Ricans came to northern cities in search of greater economic opportunity. By 1930, the mainland United States was home to 50,000 Puerto Ricans, 81 percent of whom lived in New York City. Nearly half were women.4 The following essay is the third installment in a four-part series that Betances Jaeger wrote on the New Woman. Manufacturers and traders in the United States, who are the only ones who will benefit from the protectionist tariff, think that the higher tariff will prevent people from buying foreign products, and that money will thus stay home and the country will get rich.5 This is obviously wrong because a surplus of exports over...


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