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From: Green Planet

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[287] Abutilon theophrasti, 186t, 194 Acacia greggii, 156t, 157, 158f Acer: rubrum, 182t; saccharinum, 185t; saccharum, 149, 150t, 186t acetylsalicylic acid, 212 acid in soils, 130 acid rain: and insect infestations, 24; in Permian Extinction, 36 ADHD (attention deficit hyperactivity disorder), shade and, 91 Agathis australis, 10 agriculture: and civilization, 15, 196–201; genetic diversity in crop plants, 215; and malnutrition, 200–201; origin of, 14, 197–200, 199t; terraces and soil buildup, 16; traditional crop varieties, 216; wild plants as new crops, 219–221; wild relatives of crop plants, 218–219 agroforestry, 208–10 albedo, 63 alders: green, 183; hazel, 5; nitrogen fixation in, 123, 183; seaside, 3, 5 alleles, 215 alligators, 13 Alnus: maritima, 3; nitida, 5; serrulata, 5; viridis, 183 alpine tundra: conditions in, 141–145; plants of, 141–145, 142t alternative energy sources, 231 amaranth, 222 Amaranthus retroflexus, 186t Amazon forest: buildup of soils in, 16; deforestation of, 22; transpiration and climate, 102 Ambrosia dumosa, 156t American Enterprise Institute, 236–237 American Petroleum Institute, 234 Ammophila breviligulata, 182t Anasazi, 20 Ancient Bristlecone Pine Reserve (California), 46, 146t Andean highlands, 204 Andropogon gerardi, 175t Angier, Natalie, 112 annual plants in succession, 186 Antarctica: ice caps in, 51–52; plants in, 139 Anza-Borrego State Park (California), 156t, 157 aquatic habitats, 161–165 Arachis hypogaea, 206 Aral Sea, salinization of, 107–108 Arcata (California), 220 Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR) (Alaska), 142t, 243 Arctic Ocean, ice caps in, 52 arctic tundra: conditions in, 141–145; mosquitoes in, 144; plants of, 141–145, 142t Arctostaphylos, 175t, 182t arroyos, 165 Artemisia tridentata, 156t ascorbic acid, 214 aspirin, 212 aster, hairy, 186t Aster pilosus, 186t Astragalus, 137 attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), shade and, 91 index Index.qxd 11/12/08 11:06 AM Page 287 Australia: plant cover and rainfall, 104; support for carbon restrictions, 240–241 Babylonia: environmental damage in, 105; salinization in, 108 bald cypress, 163 Bali, United Nations conference on carbon emissions, 241 banana, fungus disease in, 223–224 baobab trees, 10 Barton, Joe (R-TX), 48 Bartram, William, 13, 16, 133 basswood, 182t Bazzaz, Fakhri, 59 bearberry, 182t beech, American, 149, 150t, 186t Beerling, David, 6, 78 Benepe, Adrian, 88 Bennett, Hugh, 127 Berry, Wendell, 135 Betula nana, 142t Bialowieza Forest (Poland), 22 Bible, 41, 105, 138, 247 Big Bend National Park (Texas), 156t biofuels, 231–232, 231t biotechnology, 215 birch, arctic, 142t bison, 12 bistort, 142t blackbush, 175t Black Death, 20 Black Hills, subalpine forest in, 145 Black Hills National Forest (South Dakota), 152t bois-d’arc, 209 bog people, 164–165 bogs, 164 Bonhoeffer, Dietrich, 242 boreal forests, 145–147 bristlecone pines: in subalpine forests, 146t, 147, 148f; tree rings, 47f Britain, ancient trees of, 11; carbon emission limits in, 239 Brower, David, 27 Brown, Gordon, 246 Browne, William, 3 Buffalo National River (Arkansas), 150t bundleflower, 221 bursage, 156t Bush, George W., 234–235 Butz, Earl, 209 cactus: cholla, 156t; as food, 220; organ pipe, 158f; on sandy soil, 166; saguaro, 156t, 157, 158f Cakile maritima, 181 Calamovilfa longifolia, 182t Calocedrus decurrens, 152t Canary Islands, erosion on, 103 cancer, medicinal plant treatment of, 213 Cape Verde Islands, erosion on, 103 carbon cycle, 122, 124f carbon dioxide, atmospheric: absorption by oceans, 78; agriculture, emissions from, 117–118; correlated with temperature, 69, 51f; emissions by different countries, 79, 80t; greenhouse gas, 65–66; human sources of, 72; in ice cores, 69; increasing atmospheric concentration of, 67f; photosynthesis and, 75–79; seasonal changes in, 68; stored in soils, 76 carbon offsets, 241 carbon sequestration, 74 Carnegiea gigantea, 156t, 157, 158f carnivorous plants, 164 Carson, Rachel, 211 Carya tomentosa, 150t Castanea americana, 14, 149, 227 catclaw, 156t, 157, 158f Catharanthus roseus, 213 cattail, 220 cavitation, of water molecules, 83 Ceanothus megacarpus, 175t index [288] Index.qxd 11/12/08 11:06 AM Page 288 cedar: eastern red, 150; incense, 152t; Japanese, 10; of Lebanon, 11, 18; Port Orford, 152t Cedar Lake Bog (Minnesota), 113–114 CFCs (chlorofluorocarbons), 39 Chaco Canyon (New Mexico), 18–19, 19f Chamaecyparis: lawsoniana, 152t; obtusa, 153 chaparral, 176–177 “charismatic megafauna,” 211 Chenopodium album, 186t Cherokee tribe, 81–82, 82f cherry: black, 186t; sand, 182t chestnut, American, 14, 149, 227 Chihuahuan desert, 156t China, erosion from tree plantations, 100 chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), 39 chocolate, wild varieties of, 218 cholla, 156t Christian Right, opposition to environmentalism, 236 Christy, John, 237 Clapp, Phil, 245 Clean Long-Term Energy Alternative for the Nation Act, 238 Climate Action Partnership, 236 Clinton Climate Initiative, 239–240 cloud forests, reduced rainfall...


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