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[249] notes Introduction 1. James A. Schrader, William R. Graves, Stanley A. Rice, and J. Phil Gibson, “Differences in Shade Tolerance Help Explain Varying Success in Two Sympatric Alnus Species,” International Journal of Plant Sciences 167 (2006): 979–989. J. Phil Gibson, Stanley A. Rice, and Clare M. Stucke. “Comparison of population genetic diversity between a rare, narrowly distributed species and a common, widespread species of Alnus (Betulaceae),” American Journal of Botany 95 (2008): 588–596. 2. David Beerling, The Emerald Planet: How Plants Changed Earth’s History (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2007), 3. 3. Robert Costanza et al., “The Value of the World’s Ecosystem Services and Natural Capital,” Nature 387 (1997): 253–260. Chapter 1. An Injured Paradise Epigraph: W. S. Merwin, Migration: New and Selected Poems (Port Townsend, Wash.: Copper Canyon Press, 2007). 1. E. C. Pielou, After the Ice Age: Return of Life to Glaciated North America (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1992). Thomas M. Bonnicksen, America’s Ancient Forests: From the Ice Age to the Age of Discovery (New York: Wiley, 2000). 2. Brian Fagan, The Long Summer: How Climate Changed Civilization (New York: Basic Books, 2004). 3. Anna Lewington and Edward Parker, Ancient Trees: Trees That Live for a Thousand Years (London: Collins and Brown, 1999). Thomas Pakenham, Remarkable Trees of the World (New York: Norton, 2002). 4. John Perlin, A Forest Journey: The Role of Wood in the Development of Civilization (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1989). Patricia L. Fall et al., “Environmental Impacts of the Rise of Civilization in the Southern Levant,” chap. 7 in Charles L. Redman, Steven R. James, Paul R. Fish, and J. Daniel Rogers, eds., The Archaeology of Global Change: The Impact of Humans on Their Environment (Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, 2004). 5. Anthony D. Barnosky, “Assessing the Causes of Late Pleistocene Extinctions on the Continents,” Science 306 (2004): 70–75. 6. Charles C. Mann, 1491: New Revelations of the Americas before Columbus (New York: Knopf, 2005). 7. William Bartram, Travels through North and South Carolina,Georgia,East and West Florida, the Cherokee Country, the Extensive Territories of the Muscogulges or Creek Confederacy, and the Country of the Chactaws (1791; repr., Savannah, Ga.: Beehive Press, 1973). NOTES.qxd 11/12/08 11:09 AM Page 249 8. Mann, 1491. 9. Michael Balter, “Seeking Agriculture’s Ancient Roots,” Science 316 (2007): 1830–1835. Ehud Weiss, Mordechai E. Kislev, and Anat Hartmann, “Autonomous Cultivation before Domestication,” Science 312 (2006): 1608–1610. David Rindos, The Origins of Agriculture: An Evolutionary Perspective (San Diego: Academic Press, 1984). 10. Jared Diamond, Guns, Germs, and Steel: The Fates of Human Societies (New York: Norton, 1997). 11. Karl-Ernst Behre, “The Role of Man in European Vegetation History,” in B. Huntley and T. Webb III, eds., Vegetation History, 633–672 (Dordrecht, Netherlands: Kluwer Scientific Publications, 1988). 12. Mann, 1491. 13. Bartram, Travels. 14. Michael Tennesen, “Black Gold of the Amazon,” Discover, April 2007, 46–52. 15. Bartram, Travels. 16. Suzanne K. Fish and Paul R. Fish, “Unsuspected Magnitudes: Expanding the Scale of Hohokam Agriculture,” chap. 11 in Redman et al., Archaeology of Global Change. 17. Jeffrey S. Dean, “Anthropogenic Environmental Change in the Southwest as Viewed from the Colorado Plateau,” chap. 10 in Redman et al., Archaeology of Global Change. 18. Charles L. Redman, “Environmental Degradation and Early Mesopotamian Civilization,” chap. 8 in Redman et al., Archaeology of Global Change. 19. Elizabeth Kolbert, “The Curse of Akkad,” chap. 5 in Field Notes from a Catastrophe: Man, Nature, and Climate Change (New York: Bloomsbury, 2006). 20. Naomi F. Miller, “Long-Term Vegetation Changes in the Near East,” chap. 6 in Redman et al., Archaeology of Global Change. 21. Perlin, Forest Journey. 22. Sander E. Van der Leeuw, François Favory, and Jean-Jacques Girardot, “The Archaeological Study of Environmental Degradation: An Example from Southwestern France,” chap. 5 in Redman et al., Archaeology of Global Change. 23. Jared Diamond, Collapse: How Societies Choose to Fail or Succeed (New York: Viking, 2005). 24. Sarah L. O’Hara and Sarah E. Metcalfe, “Late Holocene Environmental Change in West-Central Mexico,” chap. 4 in Redman et al., Archaeology of Global Change. 25. Diamond, Collapse. 26. Timothy A. Kohler, “Pre-Hispanic Human Impact on Upland North American Southwestern Environments: Evolutionary Ecological Perspectives,” chap. 12 in Redman et al., Archaeology of Global Change. 27. Roland Bechmann, Trees and Man: The Forest in the Middle Ages, trans. Katharyn Dunham (New York: Paragon House, 1990). 28. Conrad Totman, The Green Archipelago: Forestry...


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