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T I M E L I N E 1890–1909 ■■■■■■■■■■ 1890 25 JANUARY Nellie Bly completes her tour of the world in seventy-two days in a hot-air balloon. 1 OCTOBER Yosemite National Park is established. 29 DECEMBER The U.S. Army attacks a Sioux camp at Wounded Knee, South Dakota, resulting in the deaths of between 150 and 370 Sioux men, women, and children. ■■■■■■■■■■ 1891 1 APRIL The Wrigley Company is founded in Chicago, selling products such as soap and baking powder. 5 MAY Opening of New York’s Carnegie Hall, with Piotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky conducting the Symphony Society. 20 MAY Thomas Edison demonstrates his Kinetoscope, the first peephole film device (it was not projected on a screen). 21 DECEMBER The first basketball game is played in Springfield, Massachusetts. ■■■■■■■■■■ 1892 1 JANUARY The Ellis Island immigration entry facility opens. 15 APRIL General Electric is founded. 7 SEPTEMBER James J. Corbett knocks out John L. Sullivan in the twenty-first round and becomes the new heavyweight champion of the world. 31 OCTOBER The Adventures of Sherlock Holmes by Arthur Conan Doyle is published in the United Kingdom by Newnes Press. ■■■■■■■■■■ 1893 1 MAY The World’s Columbian Exposition opens in Chicago. 5 MAY The Panic of 1893. The New York Stock Exchange collapses, causing an economic depression (1893–1897) followed by a flurry of corporate mergers. xiii 9 MAY Edison makes his first public demonstration of “modern motion pictures,” using a peephole kinetoscope, at the Brooklyn Academy of Arts and Sciences. Blacksmith Scene and Horse Shoeing are shown. 11 JUNE In Japan, Kokichi Mikimoto obtains the world’s first cultured pearl. 16 DECEMBER Antonin Dvořák’s Symphony “From the New World” is premiered at Carnegie Hall. ■■■■■■■■■■ 1894 12 MARCH For the first time, Coca-Cola is sold in bottles. 14 APRIL Business associates of Thomas Edison open a kinetoscope parlor at 1155 Broadway, New York. 11 MAY Workers living in Pullman City, whose wages had just been reduced by nearly a third, go on strike with the support of the American Railway Union. ■■■■■■■■■■ 1895 1 FEBRUARY Birth of John Ford, American film director. 3 SEPTEMBER The first professional football game is played, in Latrobe, Pennsylvania, between the Latrobe YMCA and the Jeannette Athletic Club. (Latrobe won the contest 12–0.) 8 NOVEMBER In Germany, Wilhelm Röntgen discovers X-rays. ■■■■■■■■■■ 1896 1 FEBRUARY In France, Henri Becquerel discovers radioactivity by accident. 26 MAY The Dow Jones Industrial Average, now the world’s oldest stockexchange index, is established as part of the New York Stock Exchange. 2 JUNE Guglielmo Marconi patents the radio. 29 JULY Chop suey is invented in New York. 3 NOVEMBER Republican William McKinley is elected president of the United States. 16 NOVEMBER Electric power is transmitted between two cities for the first time. ■■■■■■■■■■ 1897 19 MAY Oscar Wilde is released from Reading Gaol, where he had been imprisoned on sodomy charges. xiv TIMELINE — 1890–1909 26 MAY Dracula, by Bram Stoker, goes on sale. 17 JULY The Klondike Gold Rush begins. ■■■■■■■■■■ 1898 1 JANUARY Manhattan, Brooklyn, Queens, and the Bronx are incorporated to form New York City. Staten Island is added on 25 January. 13 JANUARY In France, Emile Zola’s J’accuse! exposes the Alfred Dreyfus affair. 21 APRIL Start of the Spanish American War, which lasts until 12 August. The Treaty of Paris between the United States and Spain forces Spain to relinquish Cuba, Puerto Rico, Guam, and the Philippines to the United States. 21 DECEMBER In France, Marie and Pierre Curie discover radium. ■■■■■■■■■■ 1899 3 JANUARY The New York Times uses the word “automobile” for the first time. 14 FEBRUARY Voting machines are approved by the U.S. Congress for use in federal elections. 6 MARCH Trademark is registered for Aspirin. 20 MARCH At Sing-Sing prison in New York State, Martha M. Place becomes the first woman executed in an electric chair. 4 NOVEMBER Sigmund Freud’s The Interpretation of Dreams is published. ■■■■■■■■■■ 1900 19 SEPTEMBER Butch Cassidy and the Sundance Kid commit robbery together for the first time. 2 DECEMBER Gillette files a patent application for the safety razor. 12 DECEMBER U.S. Steel is formed. ■■■■■■■■■■ 1901 17 MARCH A showing of his canvases in Paris makes Vincent Van Gogh a sensation, more than a decade after his death. 2 SEPTEMBER At the Minnesota State Fair, Theodore Roosevelt says, “Speak softly and carry a big stick.” 6 SEPTEMBER At the Pan American Exposition in Buffalo, the anarchist Leon Czolgosz...


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