restricted access Manifesto of the New Cinema Movement (India, 1968)

Twenty years after Satyajit Ray’s “What Is Wrong with Indian Films?” the “Manifesto of the New Cinema Movement,” by Arun Kaul and Ray disciple Mrinal Sen—director of such films as Akash Kusum (Up in the Clouds, India, 1965) and Bhuvan Shome (India, 1969)—calls for a New Cinema movement to emerge in India. Kaul and Sen propose not only the creation of a new form of Indian cinema, similar to la nouvelle vague in France and the American underground film (an admittedly strange combination, in the first instance), but also new forms of production and distribution to allow these films to be seen and to circulate. Based in the first instance in Bombay, this New Cinema Movement allows for low budget features to be made that will then cross-subsidize the distribution of shorts and documentaries.