restricted access Film Andepandan [Independents] Manifesto (Japan, 1964)

Written after a series of Japanese experimental films were accepted in the Knokke-Le- Zoute Experimental Film Festival in Belgium, this film manifesto calls for a cinema independent of capital and industrial filmmaking (it shared these goals with other Japanese experimental groups such as the Nihon University Cinema Club). Nobuhiko Obayashi, one of the signatories to the manifesto, won an award for his film An Eater (Japan, 1963), codirected by painter Kazutomo Fujino, at the festival. Once the Film Independents event began in Japan, organized by cosignatory Takahiko Iimura, Obayashi screened his next film, Complex (Japan, 1964), during the inaugural event.