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Chapter 1 1. IR scholarship has greatly contributed to scholarship on international organizations (IOs). However, most of this scholarship tends to conflate secretariats with the IOs of which they are part. Further, this study focuses on treaty secretariats rather than those of larger IOs, such as the World Bank, that have been the focus of most of this scholarship. This rationale is discussed in the “Methodological Approach” section below. 2. For an in-depth review of the IO literature, see Simmons and Martin (2002). 3. See, for example, Biermann and Bauer (2005); Downs (2000); Miles et al. (2002); Mitchell (1994, 2003); Von Moltke (2001); Young (1991, 1994, 2002); and Young et al. (2008). 4. See, for example, Betsill and Correll (2008); Biermann and Pattberg (2012); Biermann and Siebenhüner (2009); Cashore, Auld, and Newsom (2004); Clapp and Fuchs (2008); Falkner (2003); Gulbrandsen and Andresen (2004); Haas (1990); Newell (2000); and Selin (2010). 5. This definition follows Krasner’s (1983) classic definition of the term. 6. Recent scholarship suggests that such conflicts are less common than previously thought. See Oberthür and Gehring (2006). 7. See Jinnah (2012) for a discussion of this case. 8. See, for example, Gehring and Oberthür (2000, 2009); Jinnah (2010, 2011a, 2011b); Oberthür (2009); Oberthür and Stokke (2011); Rosendal (2001a, 2001b); Selin and VanDeveer (2003); Stokke (2000, 2004); Young (1996, 2002); and Young et al. (2008). 9. Practitioners use a variety of terms to refer to the process, including interregime cooperation or collaboration, coherence building, triple-win policy scenarios , and synergy capture. 10. See, for example, Barnett and Finnemore (2004); Biermann and Siebenhüner (2009); and Jinnah (2010, 2011b). 11. See, for example, Brack and Btanczik (2004); Charnovitz (2003); Conca (2000); Esty (2002); Jinnah (2011a); and Shaffer (2002a). Notes 206 Notes to Chapters 1 and 2 12. The details of the WTO’s environmental mandates are discussed in chapter 5. 13. Oberthür and Gehring (2006) employ a similar approach in their study of institutional interaction, in which multiple cases of interaction are studied within a single institution. 14. However, CITES interviewees were also the most generous with their time and willing to maintain an iterative relationship over time. 15. See chapter 2 for a detailed discussion of this issue. 16. The IMF refers to its secretariat as an “international civil service.” See International Monetary Fund (n.d.). Chapter 2 1. As quoted in Ranshofen-Wertheimer (1945), 391. 2. Even scholars who see IOs as potentially independent and/or autonomous actors understand secretariats as mere technical administrators. See, for example, Abbott and Snidal (1998), 9. 3. Personal observation, 2007. 4. See Mathiason (2007) for a discussion of why states see secretariats as “invisible.” 5. Joanna Depledge (2007) coined this term to describe a similar relationship between the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) Secretariat and chairpersons at the climate change negotiations. 6. See, for example, Carpenter (2001). 7. According to Marx (1957), some trace the bureaucratic form back to the mid 1700s and the French economist Vincent de Gournay. Others, such as Kilcullen (1996), argue that bureaucracies can be traced back to the royal clerks of the Middle Ages who traveled by horseback with their kings and, because they were literate, had the responsibility of carrying the writing implements and official records for the party. 8. There is a rich literature on domestic bureaucracies. One particularly relevant strand for this study is that on bureaucratic control. See, for example, Blau (1963); Gruber (1987); and Wilson (1967). 9. The IMF doesn’t technically refer to its administrative staff as a “secretariat.” Rather, it uses the term “international civil service.” This study understands these terms as essentially synonymous. Although there are important differences in empirical function, state expectations for the norms of behavior are quite similar. For example, the IMF’s code of conduct is very similar to that of the UN Staff Rules discussed below (International Monetary Fund 1998). 10. Secretariats also employ a large number of part-time, short-term consultants and unpaid interns. These short-term hires impact secretariat culture. Many of the nonsalaried employees interviewed for this study in Geneva were dissatisfied with their positions, feeling exploited and underpaid. Due to UN rules Notes to Chapters 2 and 3 207 limiting the term length of any single consultancy, they were often forced to bounce around between short-term posts, hoping for the opportunity to apply for a permanent full-time salaried position. These problems are compounded for consultants from...

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