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163 Bib­ liog­ ra­ phy News­ papers Search­ able news­ paper data­ bases used in this study in­ cluded News­ paper­, Ge­ nea­ log­ y­, Chron­ i­ clin­ gA­ mer­, and ­ African ­ American News­ papers 1827–1998. In ­ nearly all cases, data­ bases iden­ tified news­ papers ac­ cord­ ing to ti­ tles used in their head­ ers. Most news­ papers pub­ lished a sin­ gle edi­ tion, but some ­ printed var­ y­ ing for­ mats and con­ tents in morn­ ing, eve­ ning, daily, and/or ­ weekly edi­ tions. In sev­ eral cases, data­ bases dif­ fered with re­ spect to exact news­ paper ti­ tles. The ti­ tles ­ listed here re­ flect data­ base des­ ig­ na­ tions, with the ad­ di­ tion of the state ab­ bre­ vi­ a­ tion in pa­ ren­ the­ ses. News­ papers noted in data­ bases as ­ African ­ American are noted as “AA.” Some major news­ papers con­ tained sec­ tions ­ printed spe­ cif­i­ cally and in some cases sep­ ar­ ately for black cus­ tom­ ers, and they are des­ ig­ nated col­ lec­ tively as “AA in­ sert.” In most cases, how­ ever, ­ so-called Jim Crow in­ serts are not iden­ tified sep­ ar­ ately in data­ bases. Sev­ eral­ small-town news­ papers reg­ u­ larly car­ ried ­ African ­ American news but were not iden­ tified in data­ bases as ­ African ­ American news­ papers. Ab­ i­ lene (KS) Re­ flec­ tor Adair ­ County News (Co­ lum­ bia, KY)­ Afro-American Led­ ger (AA, Bal­ ti­ more, MD) Akron (OH) Daily Demo­ crat­ Alaska Cit­ i­ zen (Fair­ banks) Al­ bu­ querque (NM) Jour­ nal Alton (IL) Eve­ ning Tele­ graph Alton (IL) Tele­ graph­ American Cit­ i­ zen (AA, Kan­ sas City, KS) Ap­ peal (AA, Saint Paul, MN) Ar­ kan­ sas Ga­ zette (Lit­ tle Rock) Ar­ kan­ sas Man­ sion (AA, Lit­ tle Rock) Bibliography 164 At­ lanta (GA) Con­ sti­ tu­ tion (AA in­ sert) Au­ gusta (GA) Chron­ i­ cle Bal­ ti­ more (MD) ­ American (AA) Bal­ ti­ more (MD) Sun­ Barton’s Free Press (Car­ bon­ dale, IL) Belle­ ville (IL) News Demo­ crat Bos­ ton Daily Ad­ ver­ tiser Bos­ ton Daily Globe Bos­ ton Jour­ nal Broad Ax (AA, Chi­ cago and Salt Lake City, UT) Brook­ lyn (NY) Daily Eagle Cairo (IL) Bul­ le­ tin Cairo (IL) Cit­ i­ zen Cairo (IL) Daily Bul­ le­ tin Cairo (IL) Daily Demo­ crat Cairo (IL) Eve­ ning Bul­ le­ tin Cairo (IL) Eve­ ning Cit­ i­ zen Cairo (IL) Ga­ zette Cairo (IL) Ga­ zette (AA) Cedar Rap­ ids (IA) Eve­ ning Ga­ zette Cedar Rap­ ids (IA) Re­ pub­ li­ can Chi­ cago Daily Trib­ une Chi­ cago De­ fender (AA) Chi­ cago Eve­ ning Jour­ nal Chi­ cago Eve­ ning Post Chi­ cago Ex­ am­ iner Chi­ cago Times Chi­ cago Trib­ une Chris­ tian Re­ corder (AA, Phil­ a­ del­ phia) Cin­ cin­ nati (OH) Daily Ga­ zette Cleve­ land (OH) Ga­ zette (AA) Cleve­ land (OH) ­ Herald Cleve­ land (OH) ­ Leader Col­ ored ­ American (AA, Wash­ ing­ ton, DC) Con­ ser­ va­ tor (AA, Chi­ cago) Co­ shoc­ ton (OH) ­ County Demo­ crat Daily Ar­ kan­ sas Ga­ zette (Lit­ tle Rock) Daily Cal­ i­ for­ nian (Ba­ kers­ field) Daily Dis­ patch (Rich­ mond, VA) Daily Free­ man (AA, Wau­ ke­ sha, WI) Daily Globe (AA, New York) Daily ­ Herald (Chi­ cago) Daily ­ Herald (Del­ phos, OH) Bibliography 165 Daily Il­ li­ nois State Jour­ nal (Spring­ field) Daily Il­ li­ nois State Reg­ is­ ter (Spring­ field) Daily Inter Ocean (Chi­ cago) Daily Jour­ nal and Re­ pub­ li­ can (Free­ port, IL) Daily Miami (FL) Me­ trop­ o­ lis (AA) Daily Prog­ ress (Pe­ ters­ burg, VA) Daily Pub­ lic Led­ ger (Mays­ ville, KY) Daily Reg­ is­ ter (Ir­ on­ ton, OH) Daily Reg­ is­ ter Ga­ zette (Rock­ ford, IL) Daily Re­ view (Deca­ tur, IL) Dal­ las (TX) Morn­ ing News Dav­ en­ port (IA) Daily Re­ pub­ li­ can Dav­ en­ port (IA) ­ Tri-City Eve­ ning Star Deca­ tur (IL) Daily ­ Record Deca­ tur (IL) Daily Re­ pub­ li­ can Deca­ tur (IL) Daily Re­ view Deca­ tur (IL) Re­ view Den­ ton (MD) Jour­ nal Den­ ver (CO) Post Den­ ver (CO) Rocky Moun­ tain News Du­ luth (MN) News Trib­ une East Saint Louis (IL) Daily Jour­ nal Elk­ hart (IN...


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