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xix Ac­ knowl­ edg­ ments I am in­ debted to in­ sti­ tu­ tions and per­ sons with spe­ cial knowl­ edge of times and­ places who read my im­ per­ fect ­ drafts and gave me sug­ ges­ tions. Mur­ phy Li­ brary at the Uni­ ver­ sity of Wis­ con­ sin–La ­ Crosse per­ mit­ ted me com­ plete ac­ cess to its col­ lec­ tion and its con­ nec­ tion ­ through Uni­ ver­ sal Bor­ row­ ing to re­ sources through­ out Uni­ ver­ sity of Wis­ con­ sin li­ brar­ ies. This per­ mit­ ted me to con­ duct re­ search from the com­ fort of my home and re­ moved the fi­ nan­ cial bur­ den of fre­ quent vis­ its to dis­ tant ­ archives. Es­ pe­ cially help­ ful were per­ son­ nel at the La­ Crosse Pub­ lic Li­ brary, whose data­ bases were par­ tic­ u­ larly use­ ful. Dur­ ing the­ course of data col­ lec­ tion, I vis­ ited pub­ lic li­ brar­ ies and ­ archives in Spring­ field, Belle­ ville, Car­ bon­ dale, and Cairo in Il­ li­ nois and ­ relied upon the as­ sis­ tance of oth­ ers in Gran­ ville and New­ ark, Ohio, to lo­ cate ob­ scure ­ sources. Per­ son­ nel at the Abra­ ham Lin­ coln Pres­ i­ den­ tial Li­ brary in Spring­ field, Il­ li­ nois, were very ac­ com­ mo­ dat­ ing to my re­ quests. Those at the Spe­ cial Col­ lec­ tions di­ vi­ sion, Mor­ ris Li­ brary, South­ ern Il­ li­ nois Uni­ ver­ sity–Car­ bon­ dale read­ ily ­ opened their doors and files for my use. Mar­ sha Davis and Mon­ ica Smith at the Cairo Pub­ lic Li­ brary ­ shared the se­ crets of their city. With­ out their as­ sis­ tance, it would have been sig­ nif­i­ cantly more dif­ fi­ cult to con­ duct this re­ search. I can­ not ad­ e­ quately ex­ press my ap­ pre­ ci­ a­ tion for the as­ sis­ tance of read­ ers who gave me the ben­ e­ fit of their ex­ per­ tise and ex­ pe­ ri­ ence. Re­ tired col­ leagues from the Uni­ ver­ sity of Wis­ con­ sin–La ­ Crosse were par­ tic­ u­ larly help­ ful. These in­ cluded John Bet­ ton, ­ Charles Haas, James ­ Parker, ­ William Pem­ ber­ ton, J. Rich­ ard ­ Snyder, Mar­ tin ­ Zanger, and Joan Yeat­ man. Is­ a­ bel ­ Garcia-Ajofrin­ Romero-Salazar (Com­ plu­ tense Uni­ ver­ sity of Ma­ drid, Spain) com­ mented on inter­ na­ tional read­ abil­ ity. Those who read and com­ mented on the Ohio ma­ te­ rial were Nikki Tay­ lor (Uni­ ver­ sity of Cin­ cin­ nati), Ste­ phen Mid­ dle­ ton (Mis­ sis­ sippi Acknowledgments xx State Uni­ ver­ sity), and Rita Jack­ son (Ohio Uni­ ver­ sity–New­ ark and De­ ni­ son Uni­ ver­ sity). Edwin Hill (archi­ vist, Area Re­ search Cen­ ter, Uni­ ver­ sity of Wis­ con­ sin– La ­ Crosse) read parts that cov­ ered river­ boats and com­ merce on the in­ land riv­ ers. Sev­ eral his­ to­ rians of Cairo made it pos­ sible for me to cap­ ture the his­ tory of black pol­ i­ tics in that city. These were Dar­ rel Dex­ ter (Cairo his­ to­ rian), Shir­ ley Port­ wood (South­ ern Il­ li­ nois Uni­ ver­ sity–Ed­ wards­ ville), and Ra­ chel Ensor (South­ ern Il­ li­ nois Uni­ ver­ sity–Car­ bon­ dale). Pres­ ton Ewing, a ­ life-long res­ i­ dent of Cairo who has read all of ­ Cairo’s news­ papers for ac­ counts of ­ blacks in that com­ mu­ nity, cri­ tiqued the full man­ u­ script and made in­ val­ u­ able sug­ ges­ tions. With­ out their help, tol­ er­ ance, and crit­ i­ cal com­ ments, I could not have com­ pleted this study. ­ Charles Lump­ kins (Penn­ syl­ va­ nia State Uni­ ver­ sity) pro­ vided help­ ful sug­ ges­ tions re­ gard­ ing black set­ tle­ ment in East Saint Louis, Il­ li­ nois. For the ev­ o­ lu­ tion of black pol­ i­ tics in Il­ li­ nois, I was for­ tu­ nate to re­ ceive com­ ments from Roger ­ Bridges (Il­ li­ nois State Uni­ ver­ sity), David Joens (Il­ li­ nois state archi­ vist), Chris­ to­ pher Reed (Roose­ velt Uni­ ver­ sity–Chi­ cago), and Sun­ di­ ata ­ Cha...


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