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Notes Chapter 1 1 Some researchers use the term “acquisition” to refer to the process of acquiring a language naturally (e.g. the situation in acquiring learners’ first language) and use the term “learning” to refer to other language learning experience. This book does not distinguish the two terms and use them interchangeably. 2 This book uses the term “Chinese as a foreign language (FL),” instead of “Chinese as a second language,” to refer to all situations in which Chinese is not the students’ native language. 3 The ACTFL Proficiency Guidelines’ Speaking section was revised in 1999 and published in Foreign Language Annals, Vol. 33(1), 13–18. The revised version adds a low advanced level to the original guidelines published in 1986. Chinese Proficiency Guidelines have not been accordingly modified at the time of this work. Chapter 2 1 In Taiwan and Singapore, traditional/complicated characters are still used in all official settings and schools even though some simplified characters have penetrated the colloquial usage. 2 Content of this section and section 2.3.2 builds on Xing (2003). 3 English has verbal structures like “walk out of classroom,” “walk downstairs” for 走出教室 zŏu chū jiàoshì and 走下楼 zŏu xià lóu. However, English grammarians label “out of classroom” as a prepositional phrase modifying “walk” and downstairs an adverb modifying the verb, whereas Chinese grammarians consider both 出教室 chū jiàoshì and 下楼 xià lóu as directional complements modifying the verb. 4 I am grateful to Professor C-P Chou and Gregory Jiang for providing some of these examples. 292 Notes to pages 61–108 Chapter 3 1 Parts of this chapter, especially 3.1 and 3.4.1, build on Xing (2003). 2 The results in Table 3.1 are derived from the author’s visits to a number of classes at the Northwest Chinese School, Seattle Chinese School, Lakeside Schools, Snohomish High School, and Bellevue High School in the state of Washington, USA. 3 It should be noted that 上来/下去 shànglái/xiàqù originally conveyed the concept of spatial direction. Later, through metaphorical extension, 下去 acquired the meaning of “continue.” What should be emphasized here is that the “end” meaning of 下 is limited to situations in which it follows a verb only (e.g., 停下), and not situations in which it is used with the directional verbs, such as 来/去. Chapter 4 1 Norman (1988: 141) explains, “The three retroflex sounds are pronounced with the front of the tongue retracted to a position just behind the alveolar ridge.” Before vowels such as i, Norman further points out, “retroflex sounds are pronounced with spread lips, which contrary to the English speaker’s habit of pronouncing j, ch, sh.” According to Norman (on the same page), the three palatal sounds, on the other hand, are “articulated with the blade of the tongue placed against the front part of the palate; simultaneously the free front part of the tongue is raised toward the alveolar ridge. The English sounds ji, chi, and shi fall somewhere between the Chinese retroflexes and the palatals, and the typical English-speaking student of Chinese has a difficult time learning to distinguish Chinese pairs like shăo and xiăo.” 2 S can be used either at the beginning or at the end of a syllable as in say [sei] and mass [mæs]. 3 If this analysis holds, then the confusion between the two tones is not a result of the pitch value shared by the two tones as reported in the literature (e.g. Repp and Lin 1990), but rather resulted from the uncertainty of the application of tone 3 sandhi rules. 4 The front rounded vowel ü often has its two dots omitted after the palatal sounds because the back front vowel u never occurs after the palatal sounds. 5 The i sound after zhi, chi, shi is a low front vowel; it is different from the i after the palatal sounds (ji, qi, xi). Chapter 5 1 The pronunciations of radicals given in Table 5.3 are the commonly used pronunciation in modern Chinese, which may not be the same as the original Notes to pages 171–223 293 sound of those radicals. For instance, originally, the radical 丶 given in the table is pronounced “zhŭ” meaning “stop”; however, we choose the commonly used term “diăn” meaning “dot” to refer to this radical. Chapter 7 1 Some of the examples come from Pop Chinese: A Cheng and Tsui Guide to Colloquial Expressions by Feng et...


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