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Notes Introduction 1. Some of this“doubt” is manufactured for political and economic purposes. See the excellent monograph by Naomi Oreskes and Erik Conway, Merchants of Doubt: How a Handful of Scientists Obscured the Truth on Issues from Tobacco Smoke to Global Warming (New York: Bloomsbury, 2010). 2. Some notable exceptions include Wolfgang Krabbe, Gesellschaftsveränderung durch Lebensreform: Strukturmerkmale einer sozialreformerischen Bewegung im Deutschland der Industrialisierungsperiode (Göttingen: Vandenhoeck und Ruprecht, 1974); Karl Eduard Rothschuh, Naturheilbewegung, Reformbewegung, Alternativbewegung (Stuttgart: Hippokrates Verlag,1983); Ulrich Linse, Barfüssige Propheten. Erlöser der zwanziger Jahre (Berlin: Siedler Verlag, 1983) and his Ökopax und Anarchie: eine Geschichte der ökologischen Bewegungen in Deutschland (München: Deutscher Taschenbuch Verlag, 1986). 3. Eva Barlösius, Naturgemässe Lebensführung: zur Geschichte der Lebensreform um die Jahrhundertwende (Frankfurt: Campus Verlag, 1997), 239–45; Florentine Fritzen, Gesünder Leben: Die Lebensreformbewegung im 20 Jahrhundert (Stuttgart: Franz Steiner Verlag, 2006), 36; Krabbe, 12–13. 4. David Blackbourn and Geoff Eley, The Peculiarities of German History: Bourgeois Society and Politics in Nineteenth-Century Germany (New York: Oxford University Press, 1984); Geoff Eley and James Retallack eds., Wilhelminism and Its Legacies: German Modernities, Imperialism, and the Meanings of Reform, 1890–1930 (New York: Berghahn Books, 2003); Kevin Repp, Reformers, Critics, and the Paths of German Modernity: Anti-politics and the Search for Alternatives, 1890–1914 (Cambridge , MA: Harvard University Press, 2000); Thomas Rohkrämer, Eine andere Moderne: Zivilisationskritik, Natur und Technik in Deutschland, 1880–1930 (Paderborn : Schöningh Verlag, 1999); John Williams, Turning to Nature in Germany: Hiking, Nudism, and Conservation, 1900–1930 (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2007). 5. This work began in earnest with Cornelia Regin’s path-breaking study, though earlier studies by Wolfgang Krabbe and Ulrich Linse certainly set the tone for future research.Cornelia Regin,Selbsthilfe und Gesundheitspolitik. Die Naturheilbewegung im Kaiserreich, 1889–1914 (Stuttgart: Franz Steiner Verlag, 1995). 6. The first of these was the “Ansbacher Verein,” founded by the gymnasium teacher E. F. C. Oertel. The group soon changed its name to“Hydropathischer Hauptverein ,” which saw sister organizations founded in Berlin, Dresden, Eisenach, Kassel, Lübeck, and elsewhere in the middle and later 1830s. Regin (1995), 31. 150 Notes to pages 5–8 7. After 1900, the German League of Natural Lifestyle and Healing Associations (Deutscher Bund der Vereine für naturgemäße Lebens- und Heilweise).Regin (1995), 45. Hereafter I refer to this umbrella organization as“The German League.” 8. Regin (1995), 49–51. 9. Kai Buchholz et al., eds., Die Lebensreform: Entwürfe zur Neugestaltung von Leben und Kunst um 1900 (Two Volumes: Darmstadt: Institut Mathildenhöhe– Häusser, 2001). 10. Fritzen, 176. 11. Williams, 2–3. 12. Hugo Höppener, Gusto Gräser, Wilhelm Bölsche, Karl May, and Magnus Hirschfeld were just a few of the important figures involved in the Lebensreform movement. 13. Rohkrämer, 1999. 14. Fritzen, 2006; Michael Hau, The Cult of Health and Beauty in Germany: A Social History, 1890–1930 (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2003); Uwe Heyll, Wasser, Fasten, Luft und Licht. Die Geschichte der Naturheilkunde in Deutschland (Frankfurt: Campus, 2007); Robert Jütte, Geschichte der alternativen Medizin: von der Volksmedizin zu den unkonventionellen Therapien von Heute (Munich: C. H. Beck, 1996); Regin, 1995; Carsten Timmermann,“Rationalizing‘Folk Medicine’ in Interwar Germany: Faith, Business, and Science at‘Dr. Madaus & Co.,’” Social History of Medicine 14 (2001): 459–82; Eberhard Wolff,“Medizinkritik der Impfgegner im Spannungsfeld zwischen Lebenswelt und Wissenschaftsorientierung,” in Medizinkritische Bewegungen im Deutschen Reich (ca. 1870–ca. 1933), ed. Martin Dinges (Stuttgart: Franz Steiner Verlag, 1996), 79–108. The literature on “alternatives” is, in fact, vast, extending far beyond Naturheilkunde to include things like mesmerism and popular piety. For a very impressive review of some of this literature, see Michael Saler,“Modernity and Enchantment: A Historiographic Review,” in the American Historical Review 111 (2006): 692–716. 15. This seems to be true even for college students taking German history courses in the United States, England, and Ireland. A review of H-Net’s excellent database of German History syllabi, for example, suggests that German civil society in the Wilhelmine period receives, at best, cursory treatment. This might help to explain why it is still common for students of German history to believe in the myth of an authoritarian, homogenous, and highly interventionist Wilhelmine state. On this point, see Dennis Sweeney,“Reconsidering the Modernity Paradigm: Reform Movements, the Social and the State in Wilhelmine Germany,” Social History 31 (2006): 405–34. 16. This is an insight borrowed...

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Additional Information

ISBN
9781609091545
Related ISBN
9780875807041
MARC Record
OCLC
890248943
Launched on MUSE
2014-09-09
Language
English
Open Access
No
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