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Table of Contents List of Abbreviations vii List of Tables ix Prefacexi Introduction: Belarusian Jewry Prior to the Revolution and Until World War II1 1 The Demography of the Jews of Belarus 15 The Resettlement of Jewish Survivors 15 Profiles of Jewish Congregations 22 2 Soviet Policy Toward the Practice of Judaism in the Postwar Period31 Soviet Policy Toward Religion at the End of the War and the Creation of the CARC 31 CARC Activity in Belarus 37 3 The Decline of the Synagogue 47 Synagogues in the USSR in the Postwar Period 47 The Destruction and the Re-allocation of Belarusian Synagogues 50 The Registration Procedure for Synagogues 54 The Financial Difficulties in Maintaining Jewish Communities 78 i5.5 Smilovitsky 00 book.indb 5 2014.07.01. 15:09 vi Table of Contents 4 Religious Life 87 The Sabbath, the Jewish Holidays, and the Problem of Matzot for Passover 88 The Shtiebel, the Mikveh, and the Cemetery 108 Kashrut, Circumcision, Jewish Weddings, and the Giving of Charity 137 Religious Officiants 159 5 In the Aftermath of the Holocaust 165 Commemoration 165 Burial Sites and Monuments 166 6 Cultural Life 179 Jewish Literature 179 The Yiddish Theater in Minsk 186 The Yiddish Language 196 7 Jews in the Reconstruction of the Economy and Cultural Life 199 In Administration, the Economy, and Science 199 In Secondary and Higher Education 207 8 International Contacts 211 Ties with Abroad 211 Belarusian Jewry and the Establishment of the State of Israel 219 9 The Policy of State Anti-Semitism 227 State Action Against Judaism and Jewish Culture 227 State Action Against Individual Jews 234 Rehabilitation 247 Conclusion257 Appendix 1: Documents 265 Appendix 2: Tables 285 Glossary 295 Bibliography 305 Index 323 i5.5 Smilovitsky 00 book.indb 6 2014.07.01. 15:09 ...


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