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381 index Abe, Shintaro, 145 Adamczak, Wacław, 71, 114 Afghanistan, 60 AFL-CIO, 1, 5, 7, 27, 146, 231, 263; on sanctions, 57, 174; support to Solidarność before martial law, 69–70; support to Solidarność after martial law, 70, 109–10, 112–13, 117–18, 267, 269, 270; meetings with U.S. government officials, 70; support to CSS, 72, 73–74, 113, 191; contacts with Solidarność Coordinating Office Abroad, 73, 187, 270; “Project Coleslaw,” 191. See also Free Trade Union Institute; Polish Workers Aid Fund Allen, Richard, 17, 23 All-Polish Trade Union (OPZZ), 172, 211, 215, 219–20 Always Solidarity (Łódź), 275 American Aid to Poland Act of 1987, 186–87, 201, 344 (n. 108) American Political Foundation, 114–16 Andreotti, Guilio, 146 Andropov, Yuri, 102–3, 139–40, 160, 257 ANEKS publishers, 66, 190, 269 Anti-System Opposition Congress, 276–77 A. Philip Randolph Education Fund, 69 Armacost, Michael, 127–29 arms control, 204 Aurora Foundation, 117 Baker, James, 200, 225, 228, 240, 243; view on economic aid to Poland, 241; on American role in 1989, 250 Baldridge, Malcolm, 30, 200 Baldyga, Len, 59 Bangemann, Martin, 145 Barańczak, Stanisław, 71 Barder, Brian L., 156 Bednarz, Piotr, 93 Bennet, William Jr, 37 Biały, Juliusz, 129, 154–55, 170 Biden, Joseph, 186 Blackwill, Robert, 224–25 Block, John, 30 Blumsztajn, Seweryn, 72–73, 112, 192–93, 230–31 Boniecki, Jerzy, 189 Boris, John, 221–22 Boruszewicz, Bogdan, 67 Brady Plan, 232 Brazil, 146 Brezhnev, Leonid, 14, 34–35, 42, 75, 137, 139–40, 149, 160, 257; death of, 102, 258 Brezhnev Doctrine, 14, 15, 257; and American statements regarding Soviet intervention, 22–24 Brzeziński, Zbigniew, 16, 104, 117, 119, 146, 209; visit to Poland (1987), 182, 184, 262; view of 1989 elections, 234–35 Buckley, James, 60, 81–82 Bujak, Zbigniew, 12, 41, 67–68, 109, 111, 122, 178, 210, 272; release from prison, 134, 158; capture of, 155, 179; contacts with U.S. embassy, 182–84 Bulgaria, 153, 174 Bureau for International Broadcasting (BIB), 59–60 Bush, George H. W., 11, 21, 34, 44, 50, 200, 212, 216; visit to Poland (1987), 9, 165, 202–4, 225, 266; visit to Poland (1989), 9, 208, 237, 240–43; and review of relations with Eastern Europe, 9, 208, 226; election as president, 222; view of Gorbachev, 222–23, 251–52; Hamtramck speech, 227, 245; on economic aid to Poland, 228, 240–41; 382 index praise for Davis, 249; on American role in 1989, 250; and evolutionary change, 251–52 CARE, 5, 61–63, 118, 120–21, 265–66 Carrington, Lord Peter, 36 Carter, James (“Jimmy”), 16, 35, 52, 84, 202, 222 Casey, William, 17–18, 24, 31, 48, 77; and program to support Solidarność, 109–10 Catholic Church, 4, 8; as mediator between government and opposition, 14, 90, 93, 124, 220, 265–66; agricultural fund, 89, 118–20, 146–47, 187; relations with the PZPR, 91–92, 93, 102–4, 133, 157; relations with U.S. embassy, 180–81 Catholic Relief Services (CRS), 5, 7, 197–98; programs in response to martial law, 61–65; aid through mid-1980s, 118, 120–21, 265–66 CDN publishers, 66, 116, 191 Ceauşescu, Nicolai, 137 Celiński, Andrej, 182 Center for International Private Enterprise, 116 Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), 4, 19–20, 23, 44, 77, 95, 97–98, 168; support to Solidarność, 109–10, 267, 319 (n. 132); and debate on how to reward liberalizing states, 224–25 Charitable Commission of the Polish Episcopate (KCEP), 62, 64, 118, 189, 197–98, 265–66 Chenoweth, Eric, 27, 71–72, 113–14 Chernenko, Konstantin, 139–40, 148, 149, 160, 257–58; funeral of, 144 Chernyaev, Anatoly, 150 Cheysson, Claude, 36 Chojecki, Mirosław, 71–73, 192, 193, 278; trial, 90, 95; smuggling operations, 194 Church World Services, 62 Ciosek, Stanisław, 90, 211, 213, 215, 219 Citizen’s Committee, 232–35 Clark, William, 48, 100 CoCom. See Coordinating Committee for Multilateral Export Controls Colombo, Emilio, 38 Comecon. See Council on Mutual Economic Assistance Commission for Security and Cooperation in Europe (CSCE), 39, 156; meeting in Madrid, 31, 37, 80–81; meeting in Vienna, 170–72, 228. See also Helsinki Final Act Committee in Support of Solidarity (CSS), 5, 27, 117, 190, 321 (n. 154); founding of, 70–71; material support to Solidarność, 73–74, 112–13; information activities, 113–14, 189–90; views on sanctions, 121 Confederation for an Independent Poland (KPN), 274, 276, 278 Conspiracy Action (Łódź), 275 Consultative...


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