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contents Acknowledgments xi Abbreviations in the Text xv Introduction 1 1. A Watershed in the Political History of Mankind 11 The Reaction to Martial Law, December 1981 to January 1982 2. We Are a Card in Their Game 48 American Policy Takes Shape, January to September 1982 3. Bilateral Relations Were about as Cold as You Can Imagine 88 Diplomatic Stalemate, September 1982 to January 1985 4. A Circle of Mistakes 134 International Pressures, Domestic Response, January 1985 to September 1986 5. Very Good and Getting Better 165 Reengagement and Reinforcement, September 1986 to February 1988 6. Volatility in Poland’s Continuing Drama 207 Solidarność’s Final Victory, February 1988 to September 1989 Conclusion 253 Empowering Revolution Appendix National Endowment for Democracy Funds Granted for Work inside Poland, 1984–1989 283 Notes 289 Bibliography 367 Index 381 This page intentionally left blank illustrations Reagan, with Weinberger and Haig, at an NSC meeting on December 23, 1981 32 A gathering of early CSS volunteers in the summer of 1982 71 Reagan Reagan discussing Poland at an NSPG meeting on April 8, 1983 100 Helen Davis at one of the Davises’ salons in the American ambassador’s residence in Warsaw 108 Gorbachev and Jaruzelski at the PZPR’s 10th Party Congress in June 1986 151 A gathering at Kuroń’s apartment on September 19, 1986 159 Whitehead shaking hands with Wałęsa in February 1987 176 Bush and Wałęsa at Stanisław Kostka Church in 1987 203 Bush and Jaruzelski at the American ambassador’s residence in July 1989 243 Bush and Jaruzelski in Gdańsk in July 1989 244 This page intentionally left blank ...