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Bibliographical Essay INTRODUCTOR Y NO TE This essay is organized as follows: It begins with a section on general works dealing with Hispanic expansion in America. Thereafter, entries are grouped by chapters in the text and, as far as possible, by sections and subjects within chapters. The first time an item is listed, full bibliographical information is provided. If it is repeated in the same chapter essay , only the author's name and a short title are given. If repeated in alater chapter essay, the author's name and the short title are listed followed by the number of the chapter essay, printed in italics and enclosed in brackets, in which the work was first cited. In view of the many thousands of books, monographs, and articles that have been written about the various aspects of Hispanicexpansion in the NewWorld, I have had to select items to be included very rigorously. As a general rule, I have chosen works of modern scholarship that I regard as the best or, at least, representative in their categories. Exceptions are made in the following classes of writings: (1) the publications of earlier generations of scholars that have an abiding value; (2)unpublished manuscripts on important subjects not covered by works in print; and (3) contemporary sources that have a very special relevance to the subject under discussion. GENERAL WORKS General works dealing with Hispanic expansion in the New World fall into three main categories. The first places Spanish and Portuguese enterprises within the broad context of European expansion. I have found John H. Parry, The Age of Reconnaissance (New York: Mentor Books, 1964), to be the best balanced and most readable book of this class. The French "Annales School" has produced two noteworthy items of a more analytical nature: Pierre Chaunu, Conquete et exploitation des nouveaux mondes (xvie siecle), Nouvelle Clio, L'histoire et ses problemes, 26 bis (Paris: Presses Universitaires de France, 1969); and Frederic Mauro L'expansion europeene (1600-1870), Nouvelle Clio, 27 (Paris: Presses Universitaires de France, 1967). The "History of the Americas School" has also made significant contributions, including Silvio Zavala, El mundo americano en la epoca 511 5 1 2 B I B L I O G R A P H I C A LE S S A Y colonial, 2 vols. (Mexico: Editorial Porriia, 1967); and Historia de America y delospueblos americanos, gen. ed. Antonio Ballesteros y Beretta, 27 vols. (Barcelona: Editorial Salvat, 1936-56), relevant volumes of which will be mentioned separately. Some scholars may not agree with its schema or ideological slant, but Emmanuel Wallerstein , The Modern World-System, vol. I: Capitalist Agriculture and the Origins of the European World-Economy in the Sixteenth Century, vol. II: Mercantilism and the Consolidation of the European World-Economy, 1600-1750 (New York: Academic Press, 1974-1980), are erudite analyses of the economic dimensions of European expansion. A second category deals with Hispanic expansion in the New World as chapters in the imperial history of Spain and Portugal. For Portugal, Charles R. Boxer, The Portuguese Seaborne Empire, 1415-1825 (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1969), is the best synthesis. The standard monumental work, Antonio Baiao, gen. ed., Historia da expansao portuguesa no mundo, 3 vols. (Lisbon: Editorial Atica, 1937-40), contains contributions ranging from excellent to indifferent. On Spain and its empire, Roger B. Merriman, The Rise of the Spanish Empire in the Old World and in the New, 4 vols. (NewYork:Macmillan, 1918-34), remains a classic institutional history. The more recent Jaime Vicens Vives, ed., Historia de Espana y America, 5 vols. (Barcelona: Editorial Vicens Vives, 1961), gives more attention to social and economic themes. John H. Lynch, Spain under the Habsburgs , 2 vols. (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1964-69), is a fine treatment of imperial rise and decline. A third class of works is concerned more specifically with the formation and internal organization of Hispanic empires in the New World. Three dealing with both Spanish America and Brazil may be singled out: Bailey W. Diffie, Latin American Civilization: Colonial Period (Harrisburg, Pa.: Stackpole Sons, 1945), is outdated but contains a valuable compendium of information and some original insights; Richard Konetzke, Dielndianerkulturen Altamerikas und die Spanisch-Portugiesische Kolonialheerschaft (Frankfort: Fischer Bucharei, 1965), is amasterly synthesis. Stanley J. Stein and Barbara H. Stein, The Colonial Heritage of Latin America: Essays on Economic Dependence in Perspective (Oxford : Oxford University Press, 1970), is particularly useful for its treatment of American economies, but its interpretations are somewhat bound by dependency...


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